Advertisement

Faculty Diversity at Academic Surgical Meetings—Opportunity for Action?

  • Hind Al-Lami
  • Juliane BingenerEmail author
Original Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Background

The American Surgical Association delineated deficiencies of diversity, equity, and inclusion within academic surgery. Opportunities to increase diversity are membership in surgical societies and leadership development. We hypothesized that surgical society meetings represent additional opportunities, using gender diversity as an example.

Methods

Published programs from annual meetings of three large surgical societies were reviewed. Participants’ gender was classified by first name. Online search was used for equivocal names. We used JMP Pro 14.1.0 for univariate and multivariate logistic regression.

Results

During six meetings (2016–2018), 415 sessions with 4078 participants were included, 61% educational panels with invited faculty and 39% abstract sessions. Across all meetings, 32% of abstracts were presented by women, 22% of panel chairs or invited faculty were women. Fifty-four percent of male meeting participants were invited by their societies as moderator or speaker, and 41% of female participants were invited faculty. Fifty-nine percent of all panel chairs had no woman participant. In both univariate and multivariate regression, women had more than threefold the odds of presenting an abstract than presenting on a panel (p < 0.0001). Women were three times more likely to present in a session that was co-chaired by a woman (< 0.0001).

Conclusions

One in three abstract presenters in national surgery meetings was a woman, demonstrating engagement in the societies. Historically, men are more likely invited as faculty than women. The presence of a woman co-chair on a panel correlated with increased female participation. Similar scenarios may apply to other underrepresented groups.

Keywords

Diversity Gastrointestinal surgery Academic meetings 

Notes

Author Contribution

Dr. A-L has met all four criteria under the definition of authorship.

Dr. B has met all four criteria under the definition of authorship.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Bingener received a grant from Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons and served on Surgeon Advisory Board for Titan Medical Inc. Dr. Al-Lami has nothing to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Hoogendoorn S., Oosterbeek H., Praag, M. The Impact of Gender Diversity on the Performance of Business Teams: Evidence from a Field Experiment. (Management Science web site). July 2013. Available at:  https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1120.1674. Accessed February 15, 2019.
  2. 2.
    Rock D, Grant H. Why diverse teams are smarter. (Harvard Business Review web site) November 4, 2016. Available at: https://hbr.org/2016/11/why-diverse-teams-are-smarter. Accessed: February 15, 2019.
  3. 3.
    West MA, Hwang S, Maier RV, Ahuja N, Angelos P, Bass BL, Brasel KJ, Chen H, Davis KA, Eberlein TJ, Fong Y, Greenberg CC, Lillemoe KD, McCarthy MC, Michelassi F, Numann PJ, Parangi S, Reyes JD, Sanfey HA, Stain SC, Weigel RJ, Wren SM. Ensuring equity, diversity, and inclusion in academic surgery: An American Surgical Association White Paper. Ann Surg. 2018;268(3):403–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dageforde LA, Kibbe M, Jackson GP. Recruiting women to vascular surgery and other surgical specialties. J Vasc Surg. 2013;57(1):262–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sexton KW, Hocking KM, Wise E, Osgood MJ, Cheung-Flynn J, Komalavilas P, Brophy CM. Women in academic surgery: the pipeline is busted. J Surg Educ. 2012;69(1):84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Current Trends in Medical Education. Percentage of US medical graduates by sex, 1980–2015. (Association of American Medical Colleges web site). 1995–2018. Available at: http://www.aamcdiversityfactsandfigures2016.org/report-section/section-3/#figure-16. Accessed February 15, 2019.
  7. 7.
    Total graduates by US medical school, sex and year, 2013–2014 through 2017–2018: Table B-2-2. (Association of American Medical Colleges web site). 2019. Available at: https://www.aamc.org/data/facts/enrollmentgraduate/148670/total-grads-by-school-gender.html. Accessed February 15, 2019.
  8. 8.
    Number of active residents by type of medical school, GME specialty, and sex 2017–2018. Table B3. (Association of American Medical Colleges web site). 2018. Available at: https://www.aamc.org/data/493922/report-on-residents-2018-b3table.html. Accessed February 15, 2019.
  9. 9.
    U.S. Medical School Faculty, 2017. Distribution by sex, rank and department (Table 13). (Association of American Medical Colleges web site). 2019. Available at: https://www.aamc.org/data/facultyroster/reports/486050/usmsf17.html. Accessed February 15, 2019.
  10. 10.
    Abelson JS, Chartrand G, Moo TA, Moore M, Yeo H. The climb to break the glass ceiling in surgery: trends in women progressing from medical school to surgical training and academic leadership from 1994 to 2015. Am J Surg. 2016;12(4):566–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ash AS, Carr PL, Goldstein R, Friedman RH. Compensation and advancement of women in academic medicine: is there equity? Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(3):205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fried LP, Francomano CA, MacDonald SM, Wagner EM, Stokes EJ, Carbone KM, Stobo JD. Career development for women in academic medicine: Multiple interventions in a department of medicine. Jama. 1996;276(11):898–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geltzeiler CB, Kelley KA, Srikanth P, Deveney KE, Diamond S, Thomas CR Jr, Tsikitis VL.. Does sex influence publication productivity among colorectal surgeons participating in fellowship training programs? Dis Colon rectum. 2017;60(5):537–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    U.S. Medical School Faculty, 2017. Average full-time faculty promotions by medical school, rank, and sex, academic years 2013–2014 through 2016–2017 (Table B). (Association of American Medical Colleges web site). 2019. Available at: https://www.aamc.org/data/facultyroster/reports/486050/usmsf17.html. Accessed February 15, 2019.
  15. 15.
    Sing DC, Jain D, Ouyang D. Gender trends in authorship of spine-related academic literature-a 39-year perspective. Spine J. 2017;17(11):1749–1754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tesch BJ, Wood HM, Helwig AL, Nattinger AB.. Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine. Glass ceiling or sticky floor? Jama. 1995;273(13):1022–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wright AL, Schwindt LA, Bassford TL, Reyna VF, Shisslak CM, St Germain PA, Reed KL. Gender differences in academic advancement: patterns, causes, and potential solutions in one US College of Medicine. Acad Med. 2003;78(5):500–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fishman M, Williams WA 2nd , Goodman DM, Ross LF . Gender differences in the authorship of original research in pediatric journals, 2001-2016. J Pediatr. 2017;191:244–249.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Silver JK. Why are women excluded from medical society awards? (Statnews web site). July 19, 2017. Available at:. https://www.statnews.com/2017/07/19/women-excluded-medical-society-awards/. .
  20. 20.
    Cochran A., Hauschild T, Elder WB, Neumayer LA, Brasel KJ, Crandall ML.. Perceived gender-based barriers to careers in academic surgery. Am J Surg. 2013;206(2):263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cochran A, Elder WB, Crandall M, Brasel K, Hauschild T, Neumayer L. Barriers to advancement in academic surgery: views of senior residents and early career faculty. Am J Surg. 2013;206(5):661–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Colletti LM, Mulholland MW, Sonnad SS. Perceived obstacles to career success for women in academic surgery. Arch Surg. 2000;135(8):972–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Odom KL, Roberts LM, Johnson RL, Cooper LA. Exploring obstacles to and opportunities for professional success among ethnic minority medical students. Acad Med. 2007;82(2):146–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yehia BR, Cronholm PF, Wilson N, Palmer SC, Sisson SD, Guilliames CE, Sanchez JP. Mentorship and pursuit of academic medicine careers: a mixed methods study of residents from diverse backgrounds. BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kolokythas A, Miloro M. Why do women choose to enter academic oral and maxillofacial surgery? J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;74(5):881–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greenberg CC. Association for Academic Surgery Presidential Address: Sticky floors and glass ceilings. J Surg Res. 2017;219:ix-xviii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Housri N, Cheung MC, Koniaris LG, Zimmers TA. Scientific impact of women in academic surgery. J Surg Res. 2008;148(1):13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jagsi R, Guancial EA, Worobey CC, Henault LE, Chang Y, Starr R, Hylek EM. The "gender gap" in authorship of academic medical literature--a 35-year perspective. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(3):281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Piper CL, Scheel JR, Lee CI, Forman HP. Gender trends in radiology authorship: A 35-year analysis. Am J Roentgenol. 2016;206(1):3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Harris CA, Banerjee T, Cramer S, Manz S, Ward ST, Dimick J, Telem DA. Editorial (spring) board? Gender composition in high-impact general surgery journals over 20 years. Ann Surg. 2019;269(3):582–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cropsey KL, Masho SW, Shiang R, Sikka V, Kornstein SG, Hampton CL. Why do faculty leave? Reasons for attrition of women and minority faculty from a medical school: four-year results. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17(7):1111–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Waldman JD, Kelly F, Arora S, Smith HL. The shocking cost of turnover in health care. Health Care Manage Rev. 2010;35(3):206–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations