Tumor Size Drives the Prognosis After Hepatic Resection of Solitary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Without Vascular Invasion

  • Hiroji ShinkawaEmail author
  • Shogo Tanaka
  • Shigekazu Takemura
  • Takuma Ishihara
  • Kouji Yamamoto
  • Shoji Kubo
Original Article



We assessed the association of tumor size with patient survival following diagnosis of solitary hepatocellular carcinoma without vascular invasion.


The overall population comprised 638 patients who initially underwent hepatic resection with curative intent for a solitary hepatocellular carcinoma without macroscopic vascular invasion (487 had no microscopic vascular invasion). We set 5 cm as the tumor cutoff size for a solitary tumor based on the Milan criteria, and we used a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and propensity score matching to evaluate the impact of tumor size on survival.


Tumor size was significantly associated with a proportional increase in cancer-specific survival in the overall population (P = 0.001) and the subgroup with no microscopic vascular invasion (P = 0.029); however, multivariate analysis revealed no significant risk associated with recurrence-free survival (P = 0.055 and 0.59, respectively). After propensity score matching, the cancer-specific survival of patients with tumors > 5 cm was significantly worse than for those with tumors ≤ 5 cm in the overall population (P = 0.0077); the corresponding 2-year cumulative recurrence rates were 45.8% and 23.5%, respectively (P = 0.0027). Finally, the proportions of extrahepatic to total recurrences were 8% for those with tumors ≤ 5 cm and 29.1% for those with tumors > 5 cm in the unmatched overall population (P < 0.001).


Tumor size was associated with recurrence within 2 years of surgery and with poor cancer-specific survival in patients with solitary hepatocellular carcinoma, even in the absence of microscopic vascular invasion.


Hepatocellular carcinoma Tumor size Extrahepatic recurrence Prognosis 


Authors Contribution

All authors participated equally in the study as per the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and have provided final approval for its publication.


This work was supported by the Health, Labour and Welfare Policy Research Grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan (Policy Research for Hepatitis Measures [H30-Kansei-Shitei-003]).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of our institutional ethics committee and the Declaration of Helsinki.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic SurgeryOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Data ManagementGifu University Hospital Innovative and Clinical Research Promotion CenterGifu CityJapan
  3. 3.Department of Medical StatisticsOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan

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