Japanese Journal of Radiology

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 109–116 | Cite as

Amide proton transfer imaging of tumors: theory, clinical applications, pitfalls, and future directions

  • Kiyohisa KamimuraEmail author
  • Masanori Nakajo
  • Tomohide Yoneyama
  • Koji Takumi
  • Yuichi Kumagae
  • Yoshihiko Fukukura
  • Takashi Yoshiura
Invited Review


Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is an emerging molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). APT imaging has shown promise in oncologic imaging, especially in the imaging of brain tumors. This review article illustrates the theory of CEST/APT imaging and describes the clinical utility, pitfalls, and potential for future development of APT imaging.


Amide proton transfer Chemical exchange saturation transfer Tumor 



This paper was presented at the 103rd annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in Chicago, 2017. It received a Certification of Merit for an education exhibit. The authors would like to thank the staff of Kagoshima University Hospital for their support.


The authors state that this work has not received any funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This manuscript is a review article and does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Japan Radiological Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyKagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesKagoshimaJapan

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