Acta Geophysica

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 449–464 | Cite as

Cyclic loading–unloading creep behavior of composite layered specimens

  • Bo Hu
  • Sheng-Qi YangEmail author
  • Peng Xu
  • Jian-Long Cheng
Research Article - Solid Earth Sciences


Soft and hard interbedded rocks show obvious time-dependent deformation after deep tunnel excavations, and it is therefore necessary to research the mechanical behavior of the layered rock. However, it is hard to obtain ideal transversely isotropic rocks in fields, so rock-like specimens were poured by using artificial materials. Cyclic loading–unloading creep experiments were performed on the artificial layered cemented specimens with various layer angles (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°) at a 20 MPa confinement. Time-independent deformations and time-dependent deformations of the rock-like specimens were distinguished to investigate the visco-elasto-plastic deformation characteristics. Instantaneous elastic strain and instantaneous plastic strain had linear correlations with stress ratio, whereas creep strain, including visco-elastic strain and visco-plastic strain, increased nonlinearly with an increasing stress ratio. The specimens with a small layer angle had more noticeable time-independent and time-dependent deformations and larger steady-state creep rates than those of the specimens with a large layer angle. Attenuation creep and secondary creep could be observed at relative low stress levels, whereas accelerating creep until failure occurred at the creep failure stress level. The time for creep failure can be predicated according to the axial steady-state creep rate or volumetric creep curve. Damage in the rock-like specimens showed linear correlation with the stress ratio. Dip angle has a significant effect on the creep failure mode under cyclic loading–unloading conditions.


Rock-like material Anisotropy Creep tests Visco-elasto-plastic deformation Creep failure 



This research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2015XKZD05). The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, which have greatly improved this paper.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences & Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, School of Mechanics and Civil EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.China Construction Third Engineering Design Bureau Co., LtdWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment ProtectionChengdu University of TechnologyChengduPeople’s Republic of China

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