Seismic anisotropy of a fractured rock during CO2 injection: a feasibility study
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Fluid substitution plays the key role in reservoir characterization, leading to enhance understanding of the influence of fluids on seismic parameters. In general, fluid substitution tool assumes that the Earth is as an isotropic medium, which may not represent the practical field situation. Nevertheless, anisotropic fluid substitution provides important insights into the processes that control the anisotropic seismic response of a fractured rock when subjected to CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery and its geological sequestration. Here, we examine the influence of fluid substitution in a porous yet fractured reservoir for quantitative interpretation of seismic data. This investigation involves anisotropic Gassmann’s equation and linear slip theory for fluid substitution in a transversely isotropic media with a horizontal axis of symmetry (HTI). We present a synthetic case by conceptualizing a double-layered half-space model with upper layer as shale and bottom layer as HTI sandstone, representing an Indian mature reservoir. The effects of variation in background porosity and fracture weaknesses on anisotropic (Thomsen’s) parameters, acoustic parameters including amplitude variation with angle have also been discussed. We observe that brine and oil sands to be associated with the highest elastic moduli, while CO2 sands exhibit contrasting trend. It is noteworthy that CO2 is more sensitive to fracture weakness when compared to the other reservoir fluids such as hydrocarbons and brines, as P-wave moduli (as much as 37.1%) and velocity (as high as 12.2%) reduces significantly with the increase in fracture weakness. Further, Gassmann’s assumption is validated as we noticed unchanged values in shear-wave moduli and shear-wave splitting parameter (γ) for various fluid types.
KeywordsAnisotropy Seismic, CO2-EOR and sequestration Reservoir characterization
We thank the Editor and the anonymous reviewers for providing fruitful suggestions to improve the quality of the manuscript. Also, we thank the Director, CSIR-NGRI for encouraging to publish this work. SSG would like to thank Dept. of Science & Tech. (DST), Govt. of India, for funding this work through DST Inspire Faculty research Grant (Grant No. DST/INSPIRE/04/2016/000174). VPD thanks Professor Appa Rao Podile, Vice Chancellor, University of Hyderabad for Dr. Homi J. Bhabha Chair Professor at UCESS. Further, we state that there is no conflict of interest.
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