Delineating spring recharge areas inferred from morphological, lithological, and hydrological datasets on Quaternary volcanic landscapes at the southern flank of Rinjani Volcano, Lombok Island, Indonesia

  • Ogi SetiawanEmail author
  • Junun Sartohadi
  • M. Pramono Hadi
  • Djati Mardiatno
Research Article - Hydrology


Springs are a vital source of water supply in Quaternary volcanic environments, such as Rinjani Volcano on Lombok Island, and yet little is known about their emergence and recharge areas. Knowledge of spring recharge area can substantially support further spring analysis and management. This study was performed in two spring zones on the southern flank of Rinjani Volcano. It combined the available morphological, lithological, and hydrological datasets to build a conceptual model of the spring recharge areas. According to the analysis results, the conceptual model allowed to describe the flow medium, the aquifer type, and the characteristics of the flow system. The local morphology controlled the direction and gradient of groundwater flow to the springs. The analysis also revealed that the spring water in the study area was meteoric water, which mainly came from rainwater infiltration. Therefore, the boundaries of the spring recharge areas were represented by the morphological divides.


Morphology Lithology Hydrology Springs Recharge area 



We express our gratitude to LPDP (Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education) for their financial support during the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Agarwal A, Bhatnagar N, Neman R, Agrawal N (2012) Rainfall dependence of springs in the midwestern Himalayan Hills of Uttarakhand. Mt Res Dev 32(4):446–455. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andi Manga S, Staminate S, Hermanto B, Satyagraha B, Amin T (1994) Geological map lombok sheet, West Nusa Tenggara. Geological Research and Development Center, BandungGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansari M, Deodar A, Kumar U, Khatti V (2015) Water quality of few springs in outer Himalayas: a study on the groundwater–bedrock interactions and hydrochemical evolution. Groundw Sustain Dev 1:59–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. APHA (2005) Standard method for examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. APHA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. As-syakur A (2009) Evaluasi zona agroklimat dari klasifikasi Schmidt–Ferguson menggunakan aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geogafis [The evaluation of Schmidt–Ferguson classification on Agroclimate data at Lombok Island]. Jurnal Pijar MIPA III 1:17–22Google Scholar
  6. Blake S, Henry T, Murray J, Flood R, Muller M, Jones A, Rath V (2016) Compositional multivariate statistical analysis of thermal groundwater provenance: a hydrogeochemical case study from Ireland. Appl Geochem 75:171–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conrad OB, Gerlitz L, Wehberg J, Wichmann V, Boehner J (2015) System for automated geoscientific analyses (SAGA) v. 2.1.4. Geosci Model Dev 8:1991–2007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drever J (1982) The geochemistry of natural waters. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  9. Eaton A, Clesceri L, Greenber A, Franson M (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  10. Fiorillo F (2014) The recession of spring hydrographs, focused on karst aquifers. Water Resour Manag 28(7):1781–1805. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Florinsky IV (2000) Relationships between topographically expressed zones of flow accumulation and sites of fault intersection: analysis by means of digital terrain modelling. Environ Model Softw 15:87–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freeze R, Cherry J (1979) Groundwater. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldscheider N, Drew D (2007) Methods in karst hydrogeology. International contributions to hydrogeology, vol 2. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Grabs T, Seibert J, Bishop K, Laudon H (2009) Modelling spatial patterns of saturated areas: a comparison of the topographic wetness index and a dynamic distributed model. J Hydrol 373:15–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Healy RW (2010) Estimating groundwater recharge. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herrera G, Custadio E, Chong G, Lamban L, Riquelme R, Wilke H et al (2016) Groundwater flow in a closed basin wuth a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, Northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes. Sci Total Environ 541:303–318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Irawan D (2009) Model Hidrogeologi Berdasarkan Analisis Perubahan Sifat Fisika- Kimia Airtanah pada Sistem Akifer Endapan Gunungapi, Studi Kasus: Zona Mataair Gunung Ciremai, Jawa Barat. Ph.D. thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology, BandungGoogle Scholar
  18. Irawan D, Puradimaja D (2002) Geological mapping and groundwater physical-chemical properties characterization: an approach to spring recharge area conservation. In: Proceedings of the international conference on urban hydrology for the 21th century. Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  19. Irawan D, Puradimaja D (2006) The hydrogeology of the Volcanic Spring Belt, East Slope of Gunung Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia. Intenational Association of Engineering Geologists Congress, Oct 2006Google Scholar
  20. Irawan D, Puradimaja D, Notosiswoyo S, Soemintadiredja P (2009) Hydrogeochemistry of volcanic hydrogeology based on cluster analysis of Mount Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia. J Hydrol 376:221–234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim T, Moon D, Park W, Park K, Ko G (2007) Classification of springs of Jeju Island using cluster analysis of annual fluctuations in discharge variables: investigation of the regional groundwater system. Geosci J 11(4):397–413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kresic N (2008) Groundwater resources: sustainability, management, and restoration. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Kresic N, Stevanovic Z (2010) Groundwater hydrology of springs: engineering, theory, management and sustainability. Elsevier, Oxford. Google Scholar
  24. Lagarde L, Boston P, Campbell A, Hose L, Axen G, Stafford K (2014) Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs. Hydrogeol J 22:1447–1467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee J, Lee K (2000) Use of hydrologic time series data for identification of recharge mechanism in a fractured bedrock aquifer system. J Hydrol 229:190–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lin P, Tsai L, Wang C, Chang K, Sheng Y, Chu I et al (2017) Groundwater origins and recharge in a well field near Chien-Shih, Shinchu, Taiwan. Sustain Water Resour Manag 3:93–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loke M (2004) Geoelectrical imaging 2-D & 3-D. Geotomo Software, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Madl-Szonyi J, Toth A (2015) Basin-scale conceptual groundwater flow model for an unconfined and confined thick carbonate region. Hydrogeol J 23:1359–1380. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Manga M (2001) Using springs to study groundwater flow and active geologic processes. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 29:201–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Matthess G (1982) Properties of groundwater. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Moore I, Gessler G, Peterson G (1993) Soil attribute prediction using terrain analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:443–452. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Naves A, Samper J, Dafonte J, Pisani B, Fernández J, García A et al. (2017) Conceptual Hydrogeological model of groundwater flow through fracture schist for the design of water supply in rural areas of Abegondo (Galicia, Spain). In: International Conference on Groundwater in Fractured Rocks. Chaves, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  33. Nguyen T, Kawamura A, Tong T, Nakagawa N, Amaguchi H, Gilbuena R Jr (2015) Clustering spatio–seasonal hydrogeochemical data using self-organizing maps for groundwater quality assessment in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. J Hydrol 522:661–673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oh H, Kim Y, Choi J, Lee S (2011) GIS mapping of regional probabilistic groundwater potential in the area of Pohang City, Korea. J Hydrol 399:158–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ozdemir A (2011) GIS-based groundwater spring potential mapping in the Sultan Mountains (Konya, Turkey) using frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logisticregression methods and their comparison. J Hydrol 411:290–308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pacheo F, Alencoao A (2005) Role of fractures in weathering of solid rocks: narrowing the gap between laboratory and field weathering. J Hydrol 316:248–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Panno S, Hackley K, Hwang H, Greenberg S, Krapac I, Landsberger S et al (2006) Characterization and identification of Na–Cl sources in groundwater. Ground Water 44(2):176–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parisi S, Paternoster M, Kohfahl C, Pekdeger A, Meyer H, Hubberten H et al (2011) Groundwater recharge areas of a volcanic aquifer system inferred from hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data: Mount Vulture, southern Italy. Hydrogeol J 19(1):133–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Petitta M, Mastrorillo L, Preziosi E, Banzato F, Barberio M, Billi A et al (2018) Water-table and discharge changes associated with the 2016–2017 seismic sequence in central Italy: hydrogeological data and a conceptual model for fractured carbonate aquifers. Hydrogeol J 26(4):1009–1026. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Piper A (1953) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. Trans Am Geophys Union 25(6):914–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pourali SH, Arrowsmith C, Chrisman N, Matkan AA, Mitchell D (2016) Topography wetness index application in flood-risk-based land use planning. Appl Spat Anal Policy 9(1):39–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pourtaghi Z, Pourghasemi H (2014) GIS-based groundwater spring potential assessment and mappingin the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran. Hydrogeol J 22(3):643–662. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rodriguez K, Swanson S, Mc Mahon A (2017) Conceptual models for surface water and groundwater interactions at pond and plug restored meadows. J Soil Water Conserv 72(4):382–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sarma V, Swamy A (1981) Groundwater quality in Visakhapatnam basin, India. Water Air Soil Pollut 16:317–329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sen Z (2014) Practical and applied geohydrology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  46. Shahid S, Nath S, Roy J (2000) Groundwater potential modelling in a soft rock area using a GIS. Int J Remote Sens 21(9):1919–1924. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tagil S, Jenness J (2008) GIS-based automated landform classification and topographic, landcover and geologic attributes of landforms around the Yazoren Polje, Turkey. J Appl Sci 8(6):910–921. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Villalobos-Vega R, Salazar A, Miralles-wilhelm F, Haridasan M, Franco A, Goldstein G (2014) Do groundwater dynamicc drive spatial patterns of tree density and diversity in neotropical savannas? J Veg Sci 25:1465–1473. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ward RC, Robinson M (2000) Principles of hydrology, 4th edn. Mcgraw Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. White W (2003) Conceptual models for karstic aquifers. Speleogenesis Evol Karst Aquifers 1(1):1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences & Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of GeographyUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations