Preparation and Properties of l-octadecanol/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) Benzylidene Sorbitol/Expanded Graphite Form-stable Composite Phase Change Material

  • Jun Xu (许君)
  • Xaomin Cheng (程晓敏)Email author
  • Yuanyuan Li
  • Guoming Yu
Organic Materials


A 1-octadecanol (OD)/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol (DMDBS)/expander graphite (EG) composite was prepared as a form-stable phase change material (PCM) by vacuum melting method. The results of field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that 1-octadecanol was restricted in the three-dimensional network formed by DMDBS and the honeycomb network formed by EG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results showed that no chemical reaction occurred among the components of composite PCM in the preparation process. The gel-to-sol transition temperature of the composite PCMs containing DMDBS was much higher than the melting point of pure 1-octadecanol. The improvements in preventing leakage and thermal stability limits were mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the three-dimensional network formed by DMDBS and the honeycomb network formed by EG. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the latent heat and phase change temperature of the composite PCMs. During melting and freezing process the latent heat values of the PCM with the composition of 91% OD/3% DMDBS/6% EG were 214.9 and 185.9 kJ·kg−1, respectively. Its degree of supercooling was only 0.1 °C. Thermal constant analyzer results showed that its thermal conductivity (κ) changed up to roughly 10 times over that of OD/DMDBS matrix.

Key words

1-octadecanol 1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol expander graphite composite phase change materials synergistic effect gelator 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Kenisarin M M, Kenisarina K M. Form-stable Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage[J]. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2012,16: 1 999∓2 040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Hasnain S M. Review on Sustainable Thermal Energy Storage Technologies, Part I: Heat Storage Materials and Techniques[J]. Energy Convers. Manage., 1998, 39: 1 127–1 138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Sharma A, Tyagi V V, Chen C R, et al. Review on Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials and Applications[J]. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2009, 13: 318–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Mettawee E, Assassa G. Experimental Study of a Compact PCM Solar Collector[J]. Energy, 2006, 31: 2 958–2 968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Francis A, Neil H, Philip E, et al. A Review of Materials, Heat Transfer and Phase Change Problem Formulation for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS)[J]. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2010, 14: 615–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Cabeza L F, Castell A, Barreneche C, et al. A. I. Fernandez, Materials Used as PCM in Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings: a Review[J]. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2011, 15: 1 675–1 695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Mohammed M F, Amar M K, Siddique A K R, et al. A Review on Phase Change Energy Storage: Materials and Applications[J]. Energy Convers. Manage, 2004, 45: 1 597–1 615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Tunçbilek K, Sari A, Tarhan S, et al. Lauric and Palmitic Acids Eutectic Mixture as Latent Heat Storage Material for Low Temperature Heating Applications[J]. Energy, 2005, 30: 677–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Zalba B, Marin J M, Cabeza L F, et al. Review on Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change: Materials, Heat Transfer Analysis and Applications[J]. Appl. Therm. Eng., 2003, 23: 251–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Ahmet S, Cemil A, Alper B. Development, Characterization, and Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Properties of Neopentyl Glycol-Fatty Acid Esters as New Solid-Liquid PCMs[J]. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2013, 52: 18 269–18 275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Regin A F, Solanki A C, Saini J S. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Thermal Energy Storage System Using PCM Capsules: A Review[J]. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2008, 12: 2 438–2 458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Sarier N, Onder E. Organic Phase Change Materials and Their Textile Applications: An Overview[J]. Thermochim. Acta, 2012, 540: 7–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Hasan A, Sayigh A A. Some Fatty Acids as Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Materials[J]. Renew. Energy, 1994, 4: 69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Sharma A, Tyagi V V, Chen C R, et al. Review on Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials and Applications[J]. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev., 2009, 13: 318–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Zhang L, Zhu J Q, Zhou W B, et al. Characterization of Polymethyl Methacrylate/Polyethylene Glycol/Aluminum Nitride Composite as Form-stable Phase Change Material Prepared by In Situ Polymerization Method[J]. Thermochim. Acta, 2011, 524: 128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Yavari F, Fard H R, Pashayi K, et al. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity in a Nanostructured Phase Change Composite due to Low Concentration Graphene Additives[J]. Phys. Chem., 2011, 115: 8 753–8 758Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Sari A, Karaipekli A. Thermal Conductivity and Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Characteristics of Paraffin/Expanded Graphite Composite as Phase Change Material[J]. Appl. Thermal Eng., 2007, 27: 1 271–1 277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Molefia J A, Luyt A S, Krupa I. Comparison of LDPE, LLDPE and HDPE as Matrices for Phase Change Materials Based on a Soft Fischer-Tropsch Paraffin Wax[J]. Thermochim. Acta, 2010, 500: 88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Alkan C, Sari A. Poly(ethylene glycol)/Acrylic Polymer Blends for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage[J]. AIChE J., 2006, 52: 3 310–3 314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Niu L B, Bai G Y, Song J. 1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) Benzylidene Sorbitol Organogels Used as Phase Change Materials: Solvent Effects on Structure, Leakage and Thermal Performance[J]. RSC Advances, 2015, 5: 21 733–21 739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Zhang L, Zhu J Q, Zhou W B, et al. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Enhancement of Graphite Nanoplatelets on Form-stable Polyethylene Glycol/Polymethyl Methacrylate Composite Phase Change Materials[J]. Energy, 2012, 39: 294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Tian T, Song J, Niu L B, et al. Preparation and Properties of 1-tetradecanol/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) Benzylidene Sorbitol Gelatinous Form-stable Phase Change Materials[J]. Thermochim. Acta, 2013, 554: 54–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Takahashi A, Sakai M, Kato T. Melting Temperature of Thermally Reversible Gel. VI. Effect of Branching on the Sol-gel Transition of Polyethylene Gels[J]. Polym. J., 1980, 12: 335–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Beginn U. Applicability of Frozen Gels from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene and Paraffin Waxes as Shape Persistent Solid/Liquid Phase Change Materials[J]. Macromol. Mater. Eng., 2003, 288: 245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Edwards W, Lagadec C A, Smith D K. Solvent-Gelator Interactionsusing Empirical Solvent Parameters to Better Understand the Self-assembly of Gel-phase Materials[J]. Soft Mater., 2011, 7(1): 110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Ventolà L, Ramirez M, Calvet T, et al. Polymorphism of N-Alkanols: 1-Heptadecanol, 1-Octadecanol, 1-Nonadecanol, and 1-Eicosanol[J]. Chem. Mater., 2002, 14: 508–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Wuhan University of Technology and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, Part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Xu (许君)
    • 1
  • Xaomin Cheng (程晓敏)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuanyuan Li
    • 1
  • Guoming Yu
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringHuanggang Normal UniversityHuanggangChina

Personalised recommendations