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Surface modification of carbon materials by nitrogen/phosphorus co-doping as well as redox additive of ferrous ion for cooperatively boosting the performance of supercapacitors

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Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate a cooperative strategy of surface modification of carbon materials by N/P co-doping and redox additive of Fe2+ ion for boosting the performance of supercapacitors. Using NH4HCO3 or NH4H2PO4 as N/P dopants, the modified carbon materials have increased concerning the electrical conductivity, porosity, and N/P contents. Furthermore, Fe2+ ion serving as redox additive has been incorporated. In a three-electrode configuration, the C-N-P-Fe sample exhibits capacitance of 371 F g−1, which is 2.38 times larger than the C-Blank-Fe sample; the redox process of Fe2+ ions is controlled by the diffusion. In a two-electrode configuration, the C-N-P-Fe sample delivers energy density of 7.7 Wh kg−1, almost 2.33 times higher than the C-Blank-Fe sample. Moreover, it unveils that the pseudo-capacitance contribution has been improved with increasing N/P doping by Trasatti method; the redox process of Fe2+ ions predominantly happens on negative electrode.

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Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully thank financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (51602003), Startup Foundation for Doctors of Anhui University (J01003211), and University Student Innovation Experiment Project of Anhui University (S201910357378).

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Correspondence to Zhong Jie Zhang or Xiang Ying Chen.

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Zhang, Z.J., Han, B., Zhao, K.Y. et al. Surface modification of carbon materials by nitrogen/phosphorus co-doping as well as redox additive of ferrous ion for cooperatively boosting the performance of supercapacitors. Ionics (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-019-03406-6

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Keywords

  • Surface modification
  • Nitrogen/phosphor
  • Redox additive
  • Cooperatively
  • Supercapacitor