pp 1–9 | Cite as

A 2.4-V asymmetric supercapacitor based on cation-intercalated manganese oxide nanosheets in a low-cost “water-in-salt” electrolyte

  • Xudong BuEmail author
  • Yurong Zhang
  • Lijun Su
  • Qingyun Dou
  • Yun Xue
  • Xionggang LuEmail author
Original Paper


The main challenge for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) is the relatively low voltage, which significantly diminishes the energy density of the device. Here, cation-intercalated manganese oxide nanosheets Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O (NaMnO) are synthesized via a facile molten salts method. We find that the electrode potential window for NaMnO nanosheets can be extended to 1.2 V using a low-cost and safe superconcentrated sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) “water-in-salt” (WIS) electrolyte. To construct the asymmetric supercapacitor, the as-prepared NaMnO nanosheets and activated carbon (AC) with a potential window of − 1.2–0 V are used as the positive and negative electrode, respectively. A high-voltage 2.4-V NaMnO//AC aqueous ASC in the concentrated NaClO4 WIS electrolyte is successfully assembled, which exhibited excellent rate performance (the highest power density of 24.0 kW kg−1) as well as good cycling stability (94.9% capacitance retention over 20,000 cycles at 5 A g−1). This low-cost WIS electrolyte provides new opportunities for developing high-voltage aqueous ASCs with high energy and high power densities.


Cation-intercalated manganese oxide Asymmetric supercapacitor Aqueous electrolyte High voltage 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51576164) and Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province (18JR3RA159).

Supplementary material

11581_2019_3141_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2305 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringLanzhou University of TechnologyLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Solid LubricationLanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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