Advertisement

Ionics

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 5669–5680 | Cite as

LiFePO4/C cathode material prepared with a spherical, porous, hollow Fe3(PO4)2/C composite as a precursor for lithium-ion batteries

  • Zhiming Ma
  • Rengui XiaoEmail author
  • Xia Liao
  • Yu Huang
Original Paper
  • 74 Downloads

Abstract

Spherical porous hollow Fe3(PO4)2/C composites with graftonite crystals were prepared in a mixed solvent of water and ethylene glycol by the solvothermal method. Then, olivine-structured LiFePO4/C was successfully synthesized by a solid phase reaction using Fe3(PO4)2/C as the precursor mixed with nanospherical Li3PO4. The experimental results show that different proportions of mixed solvents have important effects on the morphology and carbon content of Fe3(PO4)2/C, which further influence the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4/C. Compared with LiFePO4/C prepared with FePO4 as the precursor, LiFePO4/C prepared using Fe3(PO4)2/C with a water/ethylene glycol ratio of 1:1 as the precursor shows a better electrochemical performance with a discharge capacity of 165 mAh/g and a capacity retention rate of 96% over 100 cycles at 0.5 C. Using porous hollow Fe3(PO4)2/C as the precursor for preparing LiFePO4/C is beneficial to the lithium-ion escaping and embedding during the process of charging and discharging, enhancing the discharge capacity and cycle stability of the cathode material.

Keywords

Porous and hollow Fe3(PO4)2/C LiFePO4/C Glucose Electrochemical performance 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Padhi AK, Nanjundaswamy KS, Goodenough JB (1997) Phospho-olivines as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. J Electrochem Soc 144:1188–1194.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1837571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barker J, Pynenburg R, Koksbang R, Saidi MY (1996) An electrochemical investigation into the lithium insertion properties of LixCoO2. Electrochim Acta 41:2481–2488.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4686(96)00036-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gao Y, Dahn JR (1996) The high temperature phase diagram of Li1 + xMn2 -x O4 and its implications. J Electrochem Soc 143:1783–1788.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1836904 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    El-Bana MS, El Radaf IM, Fouad SS, Sakr GB (2017) Structural and optoelectrical properties of nanostructured LiNiO2 thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique. J Alloys Compd 705:333–339.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.02.106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jo M, Hong Y-S, Choo J, Cho J (2009) Effect of LiCoO2 cathode nanoparticle size on high rate performance for Li-ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 156:A430–A434.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3111031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park OK, Cho Y, Lee S, Yoo H-C, Song H-K, Cho J (2011) Who will drive electric vehicles, olivine or spinel? Energ Environ Sci 4:1621–1633.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0ee00559b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee J, Kumar P, Lee G, Moudgil BM, Singh RKJI (2013) Electrochemical performance of surfactant-processed LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Ionics 19:371–378.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-012-0830-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barker J, Saidi MY, Swoyer JL (2003) Lithium iron(II) phospho-olivines prepared by a novel carbothermal reduction method. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 6:A53–A55.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1544211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Park KS, Son JT, Chung HT, Kim SJ, Lee CH, Kim HG (2003) Synthesis of LiFePO4 by co-precipitation and microwave heating. Electrochem Commun 5:839–842.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2003.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin Y, Wu J, Chen WJI (2013) Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C prepared by sol–gel synthesis with dry ball-milling. Ionics 19:227–234.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-012-0735-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang Q, Deng S, Wang H, Xie M, Liu J, Yan H (2013) Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical LiFePO4 microspheres for lithium ion battery. J Alloys Compd 553:69–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.11.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rissouli K, Benkhouja K, Ramos-Barrado JR, Julien C (2003) Electrical conductivity in lithium orthophosphates. Mater Sci Eng B 98:185–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5107(02)00574-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prosini PP, Lisi M, Zane D, Pasquali M (2002) Determination of the chemical diffusion coefficient of lithium in LiFePO4. Solid State Ionics 148:45–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2738(02)00134-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsieh C-T, Chen IL, Chen W-Y, Wang J-P (2012) Synthesis of iron phosphate powders by chemical precipitation route for high-power lithium iron phosphate cathodes. Electrochim Acta 83:202–208.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2012.07.108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li L, Li X, Wang Z, Wu L, Zheng J, Guo H (2009) Stable cycle-life properties of Ti-doped LiFePO4 compounds synthesized by co-precipitation and normal temperature reduction method. J Phys Chem Solids 70:238–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2008.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen C, Liu GB, Wang Y, Li JL, Liu H (2013) Preparation and electrochemical properties of LiFePO4/C nanocomposite using FePO4·2H2O nanoparticles by introduction of Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O at low cost. Electrochim Acta 113:464–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.09.095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li M, Sun L, Sun K, Wang R, Xie HJSCC (2013) An optimum route to prepare FePO4·2H2O and its use as an iron source to synthesize LiFePO4. SCIENCE CHINA Chem 56:576–582.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11426-012-4818-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gao J, Li J, He X, Jiang C, Wan CJIJES (2011) Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of LiFePO4/C cathode materials from different precursors. Int J Electrochem Sci 6:2818–2825Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ren J-X, Hu Y-K, Guo X-D, Tang Y, Zhong B-H, Liu H (2014) Vacuum-assisted synthesis of Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O and its influence on structure, morphology and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C. Acta Phys -Chim Sin 30:866–872.  https://doi.org/10.3866/PKU.WHXB201403041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kostiner E, Rea J (1974) Crystal structure of ferrous phosphate, Fe3(PO4)2. J Inorg Chem 13:2876–2880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen Y, Xiang K, Zhou W, Zhu Y, Bai N, Chen H (2018) LiFePO4/C ultra-thin nano-flakes with ultra-high rate capability and ultra-long cycling life for lithium ion batteries. J Alloys Compd 749:1063–1070.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Song H, Sun Y, Jia X (2015) Hydrothermal synthesis of iron phosphate microspheres constructed by mesoporous polyhedral nanocrystals. Mater Charact 107:182–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2015.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Qian J, Zhou M, Cao Y, Ai X, Yang H (2010) Template-free hydrothermal synthesis of nanoembossed mesoporous LiFePO4 microspheres for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. J Phys Chem C 114(8):3477–3482.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp912102k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M Sevilla, AB Fuertes (2009) Chemical and structural properties of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of saccharides. Chemistry 15: 4195–4203.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200802097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y Hong, Z JianXin, S XiangQian (2008) Preparation of spherical LiFePO4 particles with combined process of precipitation and calcination and their characterization. Chin J Process Eng 8Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gao C, Liu H, Liu G, Zhang J, Wang W (2013) High-rate performance of xLiFePO4·yLi3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode materials synthesized via polyol process. Mater Sci Eng B 178:272–276.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2012.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xia Y, Zhang W, Huang H, Gan Y, Li C, Tao X (2011) Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Nb-doped Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Mater Sci Eng B 176:633–639.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2011.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cui Y, Zhao X, Guo R (2010) Improved electrochemical performance of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and carbon co-coated LiFePO synthesized by freeze-drying process. Electrochim Acta 55:922–926.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2009.08.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringGuizhou UniversityGuiyangChina

Personalised recommendations