pp 1–9 | Cite as

Effects of Tween 80 dispersant on LiFePO4/C cathode material prepared by sonochemical high-temperature ball milling method

  • Qing ZhaoEmail author
  • Xuetian Li
  • Zhongbao Shao
  • Chengjun Liu
  • Ron Zevenhoven
Original Paper


Li-ion batteries have drawn increasing attention because of attractive characteristics such as high operating voltage, high particle density, long cycle life, low self-discharge, and not showing a memory effect. LiFePO4/C cathode material was prepared via a sonochemical high-temperature ball milling method using Tween 80 dispersant. The effects of the Tween 80 on the electrochemical properties of LiFePO4/C were investigated. The experimental results showed that the Tween 80 improved the surface area of LiFePO4/C, and the prepared cathode material showed a better electrochemical performance: it delivered discharge capacities of 159.0 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 110.4 mAh g−1 at 10 C, which were higher than for Tween 80-free samples. Moreover, the discharge capacity was 119.6 mAh g−1 at a rate of 5.0 C over 100 cycles while the capacity retention was 94.2%.


LiFePO4 Cathode material Tween 80 Sonochemical High-temperature ball milling 


Funding information

This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51704068), the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC0805100), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. N172504020).


  1. 1.
    Pasquier A, Plitz I, Menocal S, Amatucci G (2003) A comparative study of Li-ion battery, super capacitor and non-aqueous asymmetric hybrid devices for automotive applications. J Power Sources 115:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Padhi AK, Nanjundaswamy KS, Goodenough JB (1997) Phospho-olivines as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. J Electrochem Soc 144:1188–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim HS, Cho BW, Cho W (2004) Cycling performance of LiFePO4 cathode material for lithium secondary batteries. J Power Sources 132:235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhi X, Liang G, Wang L (2009) The cycling performance of LiFePO4/C cathode materials. J Power Sources 189:779–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takahashi M, Tobishima S, Takei K, Sakurai Y (2002) Reaction behavior of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Solid State Ionics 148:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bao L, Li LL, Xu G, Wang JW, Zhao RY, Shen G, Han GR, Zhou SX (2016) Olivine LiFePO4 nanocrystallites embedded in carbon-coating matrix for high power Li-ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 222:685–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xun D, Wang PF, Shen BW (2016) Synthesis and characterization of sulfur-doped carbon decorated LiFePO4 nanocomposite as high performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Ceram Int l42:5331–5338Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu HC, Wang YM, Hsieh CC (2017) Optimized synthesis of Cu-doped LiFePO4/C cathode material by an ethylene glycol assisted co-precipitation method. Ceram Int 43:3196–3201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang YM, Giuli G, Moretti A, Nobili F, Fehr KT, Paris E, Marassi (2015) R synthesis and characterization of Zn-doped LiFePO4 cathode materials for Li-ion battery. Mater Chem Phys 155:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liao XZ, He YS, Ma ZF, Zhang XM, Wang L (2007) Effects of fluorine-substitution on the electrochemical behavior of LiFePO4/C cathode materials. J Power Sources 174:720–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Madhav S, Bhawana S, Monika WP (2017) Reaction mechanism and morphology of the LiFePO4 materials synthesized by chemical solution deposition and solid-state reaction. J Electroanal Chem 790:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smecellato PC, Davoglio RA, Biaggio SR, Bocchi N, Rocha-Filho RC (2017) Alternative route for LiFePO4 synthesis: carbothermal reduction combined with microwave-assisted solid-state reaction. Mater Res Bull 86:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu H, Zhang HP, Fu LJ, Wu YP, Wu HQ (2006) Kinetic study on LiFePO4/C nanocomposites synthesized by solid state technique. J Power Sources 159:717–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhu YM, Tang SZ, Shi HH, Hu HL (2014) Synthesis of FePO4·xH2O for fabricating submicrometer structured LiFePO4/C by a co-precipitation method. Ceram Int 40:2685–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang Y, Sun B, Park J, Kim WS, Kim HS, Wang G (2011) Morphology control and electrochemical properties of nanosize LiFePO4 cathode material synthesized by co-precipitation combined with in situ polymerization. J Alloys Compd 509:1040–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xie G, Zhu HJ, Liu XM, Yang H (2013) A core-shell LiFePO4/C nanocomposite prepared via a sol-gel method assisted by citric acid. J Alloys Compd 574:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao MY, Liu NQ, Li ZB, Wang WK, Li CM, Zhang H, Chen YL, Yu ZB, Huang YQ (2014) A gelatin-based sol-gel procedure to synthesize the LiFePO4/C nanocomposite for lithium ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 258:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang Q, Jiang WW, Zhou ZF, Wang SM, Guo XS, Zhao S, Ma G (2012) Enhanced electrochemical performance of Li4SiO4-coated LiFePO4 prepared by sol-gel method and microwave heating. Solid State Ionics 218:31–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ehsan G, Mehran J, Hossein GZ, Hossein B, Mehdi G (2018) Tartaric acid assisted carbonization of LiFePO4 synthesized through in situ hydrothermal process in aqueous glycerol solution. Electrochim Acta 259:903–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wu G, Liu N, Gao XG, Tian XH, Zhu YB, Zhou YK, Zhu QY (2018) A hydrothermally synthesized LiFePO4/C composite with superior low-temperature performance and cycle life. Appl Surf Sci 435:1329–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bolloju S, Rohan R, Wu ST, Yen HX, Dwivedi GD, Lin YA, Lee JT (2016) A green and facile approach for hydrothermal synthesis of LiFePO4 using iron metal directly. Electrochim Acta 220:164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao CS, Wang LN, Wu H, Chen JT, Gao M (2018) Ultrafast fabrication of LiFePO4 with high capacity and superior rate cycling performance for lithium ion batteries. Mater Res Bull 97:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li XT, Shao ZB, Liu KR, Zhao Q, Liu GF, Xu BS (2017) Influence of Li:Fe molar ratio on the performance of the LiFePO4/C prepared by high temperature ball milling method. J Electroanal Chem 801:368–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li XT, Shao ZB, Liu KR, Zhao Q, Liu GF, Xu BS (2017) Influence of synthesis method on the performance of the LiFePO4/C cathode material. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 529:850–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao Q, Shao ZB, Liu CJ, Jiang MF, Li XT, Zevenhoven R, Henrik S (2014) Preparation of Cu-Cr alloy powder by mechanical alloying. J Alloys Compd 607:118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jia LY, Shao ZB, Lv Q, Tian YW, Han JF (2014) Preparation of red-emitting phosphor (Y, Gd) BO3: EU3+ by high temperature ball milling. Ceram Int 40:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li XT, Shao ZB, Liu KR, Zhao Q, Liu GF, Xu BS (2018) Synthesis and electrochemical characterizations of LiMn2O4 prepared by high temperature ball milling combustion method with citric acid as fuel. J Electroanal Chem 818:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sivakumar P, Nayak PK, Markovsky B, Aurbach D, Gedanken A (2015) A Sonochemical synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and its electrochemical performance as a cathode material for 5 V Li-ion batteries. Ultrason Sonochem 26:332–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malka E, Perelshtein I, Lipovsky A, Shalom Y, Naparstek L, Perkas N, Patick T, Lubart R, Nitzan Y, Banin E, Gedanken A (2013) A eradication of multi-drug resistant bacteria by a novel Zn-doped CuO nanocomposite. Small 9:4069–4076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gaberscek M, Dominko R, Jamnik J (2007) Is small particle size more important than carbon coating? An example study on LiFePO4 cathodes. Electrochem Commun 9:2778–2783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kuwahara A, Suzuki S, Miyayama M (2010) Hydrothermal synthesis of LiFePO4 with small particle size and its electrochemical properties. J Electroceram 24:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Feng JP, Wang YL (2016) High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries. Appl Surf Sci 390:481–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Malik R, Burch D, Bazant M, Ceder G (2010) Particle size dependence of the ionic diffusivity. Nano Lett 10:4123–4127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mangang M, Seifert HJ, Pflegingab W (2016) Influence of laser pulse duration on the electrochemical performance of laser structured LiFePO4 composite electrodes. J Power Sources 304:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yen H, Rohan R, Chiou CY, Hsieh CJ, Bolloju S, Li CC, Yang YF, Ong CW, Lee JT (2017) Hierarchy concomitant in situ stable iron(II)-carbon source manipulation using ferrocenecarboxylic acid for hydrothermal synthesis of LiFePO4 as high-capacity battery cathode. Electrochim Acta 253:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Burba CM, Frech R (2004) Raman and FTIR spectroscopic study of LixFePO4(0<x<1). J Electrochem Soc 151:A1032–A1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sivakumar M, Muruganantham R, Subadevi R (2015) Synthesis of surface modified LiFePO4 cathode material via polyoltechnique for high rate lithium secondary battery. Appl Surf Sci 337:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xue Y, Wang ZB, Yu FD, Zhang Y, Yin GP (2014) Ethanol-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with excellent long-term cyclability at high rate for lithium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:4185–4191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ma ZP, Shao GJ, Wang GL, Zhang Y, Du JP (2014) Effects of Nb-doped on the structure and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C composites. J Solid State Chem 210:232–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ouvrard G, Zerrouki M, Soudan P, Lestriez B, Masquelier C, Morcrette M, Hamelet S, Belin S, Flank AM, Baudelet F (2013) Heterogeneous behaviour of the lithium battery composite electrode LiFePO4. J Power Sources 229:16–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yu DYW, Fietzek C, Weydanz W, Donoue K, Inoue T, Kurokawa H, Fujitani S (2007) Study of LiFePO4 by cyclic voltammetry. J Electrochem Soc 154:A253–A257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Li J, Qu QT, Zhang LF, Zhang L, Zheng HH (2013) A monodispersed nano-hexahedral LiFePO4 with improved power capability by carbon-coatings. J Alloys Compd 579:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Qin X, Wang XH, Xiang HM, Xie J, Li JJ, Zhou YC (2010) Mechanism for hydrothermal synthesis of LiFePO4 platelets as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. J Phys Chem C 114:16806–16812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang HQ, Lai FY, Li Y, Zhang XH, Huang YG, Hu SJ, Li QY (2015) Excellent stability of spinel LiMn2O4-based cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 177:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fathollahi F, Javanbakht M, Omidvar H, Ghaemi M (2015) LiFePO4/C composite cathode via CuO modified graphene nanosheets with enhanced electrochemical performance. J Alloys Compd 643:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Han B, Meng XD, Ma L, Nan JY (2016) Nitrogen-doped carbon decorated LiFePO4 composite synthesized via a microwave heating route using polydopamine as carbon-nitrogen precursor. Ceram Int 42:2789–2797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yang JL, Wang JJ, Tang YJ, Wang DN, Li XF, Hu YH, Li RY, Liang GX, Sham TK, Sun XL (2013) LiFePO4-graphene as a superior cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries: impact of stacked graphene and unfolded grapheme. Energy Environ Sci 6:1521–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhao CS, Wang LN, Chen JT, Gao M (2017) Environmentally benign and scalable synthesis of LiFePO4 nanoplates with high capacity and excellent rate cycling performance for lithium ion batteries. Electrochim Acta 255:266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tian Z, Zhou ZF, Liu SS, Ye F, Yao SJ (2015) Enhanced properties of olivine LiFePO4/graphene co-doped with Nb5+ and Ti4+ by a sol-gel method. Solid State Ionics 278:186–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang ZH, Yuan LX, Wu M, Sun D, Huang YH (2011) Effects of Na+ and cl co-doping on electrochemical performance in LiFePO4/C. Electrochim Acta 56:8477–8483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Xiong J, Xiong S, Guo Z, Yang M, Chen J, Fan H (2012) Ultrasonic dispersion of nano TiC powders aided by tween 80 addition. Ceram Int 38:1815–1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xuetian Li
    • 3
  • Zhongbao Shao
    • 2
  • Chengjun Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ron Zevenhoven
    • 4
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Ecological Metallurgy of Multimetallic Mineral (Ministry of Education)Northeastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.School of MetallurgyNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  3. 3.School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringShenyang Ligong UniversityShenyangChina
  4. 4.Thermal and Flow Engineering LaboratoryÅbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations