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Preparation of LiFePO4/C via high-temperature ball-milling route and Box-Behnken design-based optimization

  • Xuetian Li
  • Yonghui Cui
  • Lina Yu
  • Hongmei Shao
  • Zhongcai ShaoEmail author
  • Chuang Li
  • Zhongbao Shao
Original Paper


LiFePO4/C cathode material was prepared via high-temperature ball-milling route with ultrasonic dispersion as mixing process using eutectic molten salt (0.76 LiOH·H2O-0.24 Li2CO3) as lithium source. Box-Behnken design was used to study the combined effects of ultrasonic time, ball-milling temperature, and ball-milling time on the discharge capacity to obtain the optimum predicted conditions. The optimum conditions were as follows: ultrasonic time was 63 min, ball-milling temperature was 638 °C, and ball-milling time was 7 h. LiFePO4/C prepared from the optimized experimental conditions exhibited a well electrochemical performance; its discharge capacity was 161.3 mAh g−1 at a 0.1 C-rate which was in consistence with the predicted discharge capacity of 160.2 mAh g−1. Moreover, its capacity retention rate achieved 93.6% at a 10 C-rate over 100 cycles.


LiFePO4/C Cathode material High-temperature ball-milling route Box-Behnken design 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by Liaoning Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20170540776) and the Program for Liaoning Innovation Talents in University (LR2017079).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuetian Li
    • 1
  • Yonghui Cui
    • 1
  • Lina Yu
    • 1
  • Hongmei Shao
    • 1
  • Zhongcai Shao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chuang Li
    • 2
  • Zhongbao Shao
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringShenyang Ligong UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShenyang Ligong UniversityShenyangChina
  3. 3.School of MetallurgyNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina

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