, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 4137–4147 | Cite as

LiAlCl4·3SO2: a promising inorganic electrolyte for stable Li metal anode at room and low temperature

  • Tiantian Gao
  • Bo WangEmail author
  • Fei Wang
  • Ruopeng Li
  • Lei Wang
  • Dianlong WangEmail author
Original Paper


LiAlCl4·3SO2 is a promising electrolyte used for Li metal batteries. At room and low temperature, a stable solid electrolyte interface film can be formed in LiAlCl4·3SO2 to achieve favorable protection for Li metal anodes. Here, Li|Cu cells with SO2-based inorganic electrolyte (LiAlCl4·3SO2) display higher average coulombic efficiency and more excellent cycling stability compared with a conventional organic electrolyte. Moreover, at 0.5 mA cm−2, the coulombic efficiency of Li|Cu cells with LiAlCl4·3SO2 electrolyte can reach 95% at − 20 °C, while the coulombic efficiency of the conventional organic electrolyte at − 20 °C is only about 79%. Furthermore, LiAlCl4·3SO2 electrolyte is non-combustible. Based on all the experimental results, LiAlCl4·3SO2 is a promising electrolyte candidate for safe Li metal batteries.

Graphic abstract

Lithium metal anode, protected by the stable and dense SEI films formed in non-flammable and inorganic non-aqueous liquid electrolyte-LiAlCl4·3SO2 (IE), exhibits small and stable over-potential during Li stripping/plating compared with conventional organic electrolyte (OE) even at − 20 °C.


LiAlCl4·3SO2 electrolyte Non-combustible Li metal anode Stable SEI film Low temperature 


Funding information

This study is funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51874110 and 51604089), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. HIT.NSRIF.2017024), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016 M601431 and 2018T110308), and the Heilongjiang Province Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. LBH-Z16056 and LBH-TZ1707).

Supplementary material

11581_2019_2994_MOESM3_ESM.doc (2.7 mb)
ESM 3 (DOC 2801 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

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