, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 4197–4207 | Cite as

The effects of anode additives towards suppressing dendrite growth and hydrogen gas evolution reaction in Zn-air secondary batteries

  • Emmanuel Olugbemisola Aremu
  • Da-Jeong Park
  • Kwang-Sun RyuEmail author
Original Paper


In our continual effort to develop a cost effective rechargeable Zn-air batteries, herewith, we demonstrated Zn anodes comprising of (i) 30 wt.% Zn: 3 wt.% bismuth oxide: 10 wt.% potassium sulfide (ZBK), (ii) 30 wt.% Zn: 3 wt.% bismuth oxide: 5 wt.% lead (II) oxide (ZBP), and (iii) 30 wt.% Zn: 3 wt.% bismuth oxide: 10 wt.% potassium sulfide: 5 wt.% lead (II) oxide additives (ZBKP) in 6 M KOH aqueous solutions and 1.88 wt.% polyacrylic acid as the gelling agent. KOH gel constituted the remaining mass of the anode wt.%. Results were confirmed via cycle voltammetry (CV), Tafel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), etc., measurements. Among the various Zn anodes analyzed, ZBKP showed a superior cathodic peak of − 1.805 and 1.950 V vs. Hg/HgCl at 5th and 40th cycles during electrochemical cycle voltammetry. Tafel fitting on linear polarization test shows that ZBK exhibits the highest corrosion behavior followed by ZBP while ZBKP has the lowest corrosion behavior with an estimated corrosion inhibition efficiency of 36.06%. Furthermore, ZBKP displays the lowest dendrite growth, least corrosion rate, and superior capacity even at 60th cycles compared to ZBK and ZBP. In view of our finding, ZBKP has a higher positive electrode potential compare to ZBK and ZBP electrodes. Thus, ZBKP is the most suitable for aqueous battery due to its low minimal side effect. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) images confirm that the various elemental additives were evenly deposited on the Zn anode surface. Ex situ spectroscopy and electrochemical performance studies also verified that the dendrite-free nature of improved Zn anode and the modified interfaces between electrolyte and Zn play vital roles towards advancing the energy storage performance. With all this indices and yard stick, the level of improvement we demonstrated in this current study is attractive for the design of an advanced secondary zinc-air batteries.


Rechargeable Zn-air batteries Zinc anodes Corrosion Polarization resistance 


Funding information

This study was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (No. 2012–M1A2A2).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel Olugbemisola Aremu
    • 1
  • Da-Jeong Park
    • 1
  • Kwang-Sun Ryu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of UlsanUlsanSouth Korea

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