Advertisement

Ionics

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 3269–3276 | Cite as

The effect of dimensional ratio and proportion of micron-nanoparticles on discharge performance of silver (ІІ) oxide cathode

  • Mostafa NajafiEmail author
  • Amin Abedini
Original Paper
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

The silver (П) oxide (AgO) powders as cathode material in Ag-based battery were synthesized with different dimensional ratios (DRs) and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results indicated that AgO particles were slice in morphology. Also, the particle sizes were classified in three categories, including nanoscale with DR = 1 to 3, submicron/μm mixture with DR = 3 to 20 and nanoscale/submicron/μm mixture with DR = 3 to 15. The electrochemical performance of AgO particles as cathode active materials was investigated. The results of galvanostatic discharge at 80 mA/cm2 indicated that the highest capacity (400 mAh/g) and lowest potential drop were obtained for submicron/μm mixture of AgO particles. The best discharge performance at high current density (600 mA/cm2) was obtained for the cathodes prepared with high proportion of micron AgO particles.

Keywords

Silver (П) oxide Size controlled Galvanostatic discharge Delivered capacity Cathode strength Dimensional ratio 

Notes

Funding information

This research has been supported by Imam Hossein University of Tehran.

Supplementary material

11581_2019_2880_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1994 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Skelton J, Serenyi R (1997) Improved silver/zinc secondary cells for underwater applications. J Power Sources 65:39–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7753(96)02611-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Habekost A (2016) Experimental investigations of alkaline silver-zinc and copper-zinc batteries. World J Chem Educ 4:4–12.  https://doi.org/10.12691/wjce-4-1-2 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith DF, Graybill GR, Grubbs RK, Gucinski JA (1997) New developments in very high rate silver oxide electrodes. J Power Sources 65:47–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7753(97)02467-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takedaa K, Hattorib T (2001) Optimization of the amount of additives to AgO cathodes on high-drain pulse performance of Zn/AgO cells. J Electrochem Soc 148:44–48.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1339028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li Q, Bjerrum NJ (2002) Aluminum as anode for energy storage and conversion. J Power Sources 110:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7753(01)01014-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marschilok AC, Kim YJ, Takeuchi KJ, Takeuchia ES (2012) Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide, Ag0.48VOPO4: exploration as a cathode material in primary and secondary battery applications. J Electrochem Soc 159:1690–1695.  https://doi.org/10.1149/2.062210jes CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Breyfogle BE, Hung CJ, Shumsky MG, Switzer JA (1996) Electrodeposition of silver (П) oxide films. J Electrochem Soc 143:2742–2746.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40995-017-0416-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Droog JMM, Huisman F (1980) Electrochemical formation and reduction of silver oxides in alkaline media. J Electroanal Chem 115:211–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(80)80326-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glen DR, Mansour AN, oneill KM, Dallek S (1990) Electrochemical preparation of silver oxide electrodes having high thermal stability. US Patent No: 4892629Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pan J, Sun Y, Wang Z, Wan P, Liu X, Fan M (2007) Nano silver oxide (AgO) as a super high charge/discharge rate cathode material for rechargeable alkaline batteries. J Mater Chem 17:4820–4825.  https://doi.org/10.1039/B711373K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kielhorn S, Buj DH, Glemser O, Gerner R, Jeske G (1991) A new economical process for the preparation of silver (І, Ш) oxide. Angew Chem 30:1017.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.199110171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tissot P (1987) Synthesis and properties of tetragonal silver (I, III) oxide, AgO. Polyhedron 6:1309–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5387(00)80887-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qadeer R, Ahmad F, Ikram S, Munir A (1999) Synthesis and characterization of silver(П) oxide. Chem Soc Pak 21:368–374Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pan J, Sun Y, Wan P, Wang Z, Liu X (2006) Preparation of NaBiO3 and the electrochemical characteristic of manganese dioxide doped with NaBiO3. Electrochim Acta 51:3118–3124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2005.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dallek S, West WA, Larrick BF (1986) Decomposition kinetics of AgO cathode material by thermogravimetry. J Electrochem Soc 133:2451–2453.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2108448 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dirkse TP (1960) The cathodic behavior of AgO in alkaline solutions. J Electrochem Soc 107:859–863.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2427530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Amlie RF, Ruetschi P (1961) Solubility and stability of silver oxides in alkaline electrolytes. J Electrochem Soc 108:813–819.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2428228 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smith DF, Brown C (2001) Aging in chemically prepared divalent silver oxide electrodes for silver/zinc reserve batteries. J Power Sources 96:121–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7753(00)00679-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu HT, Xia X, Guo ZP (2002) A novel silver oxide electrode and its charge–discharge performance. J Appl Electrochem 32:275–279.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015541703258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dirkse TP (1959) The silver oxide electrode. J Electrochem Soc 106:453–457.  https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2428099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sobhani-Nasab A, Behpour M (2016) Synthesis and characterization of AgO nanostructures by precipitation method and its photocatalyst application. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 2:1191–1196.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-015-3873-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keyvani A, Saremi M, Heydarzadeh Sohi M, Valefi Z (2012) A comparison on thermomechanical properties of plasma-sprayed conventional and nanostructured YSZ TBC coatings in thermal cycling. J Alloy Compd 541:488–494.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.06.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kiania S, Mousavia SM, Shahtahmassebi N, Saljoughi E (2015) Hydrophilicity improvement in polyphenylsulfone nanofibrousfiltration membranes through addition of polyethylene glycol. Appl Surf Sci 359:252–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.10.107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barak M (2006) Electrochemical power sources, primary & secondary batteries. Institution of Engineering and Technology, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Linden D, Reddy TB (1995) Handbook of batteries. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Desvergne S, Gasse A, Pron A (2011) Electrical characterization of polyaniline-based adhesive blends. J Appl Polym Sci 120:1965–1973.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.33292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huanhuan H, Kailun C, Hao L, Hao W, Jingbing L, Kai Y, Hui Y (2018) A review of the positive electrode additives in lead-acid batteries. Int J Electrochem Sci 13:2329–2340.  https://doi.org/10.20964/2018.03.70 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gaikwad AM, Arias AC (2017) Understanding the effects of electrode formulation on the mechanical strength of composite electrodes for flexible batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:6390–6400.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b14719 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dirkse TP, Wiers B (1959) The stability and solubility of AgO in alkaline solutions. J Electrochem Soc 106:284–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnston HL, Cuta F, Garrett AB (1933) The solubility of silver oxide in water, in alkali and in alkaline salt solutions. The amphoteric character of silver hydroxide. J Am Chem Soc 55:2311–2325.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01333a016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sabzi M, Mersagh Dezfuli S (2018) A study on the effect of compositing silver oxide nanoparticles by carbon on the electrochemical behavior and electronic properties of zinc-silver oxide batteriesInt. J Appl Ceram Technol 15:1446–1458.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijac.13047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceImam Hossein UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations