, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 3129–3141 | Cite as

Triglyme-based electrolyte for sodium-ion and sodium-sulfur batteries

  • Daniele Di Lecce
  • Luca Minnetti
  • Daniele Polidoro
  • Vittorio Marangon
  • Jusef HassounEmail author
Original Paper


Herein, we investigate a lowly flammable electrolyte formed by dissolving sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (NaCF3SO3) salt in triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TREGDME) solvent as suitable medium for application in Na-ion and Na/S cells. The study, performed by using various electrochemical techniques, including impedance spectroscopy, voltammetry, and galvanostatic cycling, indicates for the solution high ionic conductivity and sodium transference number (t+), suitable stability window, very low electrode/electrolyte interphase resistance and sodium stripping/deposition overvoltage. Direct exposition to flame reveals the remarkable safety of the solution due to missing fire evolution under the adopted experimental setup. The solution is further investigated in sodium cells using various electrodes, i.e., mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs), tin-carbon (Sn–C), and sulfur-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (S-MWCNTs). The results show suitable cycling performances, with stable reversible capacity ranging from 90 mAh g−1 for MCMB to 130 mAh g−1 for Sn–C, and to 250 mAh g−1 for S-MWCNTs, thus suggesting the electrolyte as promising candidate for application in sustainable sodium-ion and sodium-sulfur batteries.

Graphical abstract

A versatile solution! Lowly flammable electrolyte solution based on triglyme shows very promising electrochemical properties for application in new-generation Na-ion and Na–S cells. The electrochemical study indicates fast ion transport, suitable stability, and remarkably low resistance at the electrode interphase. The applicability is demonstrated by tests in Na cells using graphite and tin-carbon anodes, as well as sulfur-multiwalled carbon nanotube cathode.


Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether TREGDME NaCF3SO3 Sodium ion Sodium-sulfur battery 


Funding information

The work was funded by the grant “Fondo di Ateneo per la Ricerca Locale (FAR) 2017”, University of Ferrara, and performed within the collaboration project “Accordo di Collaborazione Quadro 2015” between University of Ferrara (Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences) and Sapienza University of Rome (Department of Chemistry).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniele Di Lecce
    • 1
  • Luca Minnetti
    • 1
  • Daniele Polidoro
    • 1
  • Vittorio Marangon
    • 1
  • Jusef Hassoun
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  2. 2.National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM) University of Ferrara Research UnitUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly

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