Advertisement

Ionics

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Sol–gel preparation of metal and nonmetal-codoped TiO2–graphene nanophotocatalyst for photodegradation of MO under UV and visible-light irradiation

  • Mojtaba Rotami
  • Masood HamadanianEmail author
  • Mehdi Rahimi-NasrabadiEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
Original Paper

Abstract

To improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles in the visible area, different metal/nonmetal co-doped TiO2 crystals (Cu, C, N, S/TiO2-x wt%) were grown on graphene (GR) by means of a sol–gel procedure using cysteine (Cys) (C3H6O2NS), Cu(NO3).3H2O, and titanium (IV) isopropoxide (Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4) as precursors. The products were used for degrading methyl orange (MO) in water. The qualities, surface morphology, band gap energy, and composition of the photocatalyst were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS). Based on the XRD results, the samples x%Cu/1.5%Cys/TiO2-x wt% GR and x%Cu/1.5%Cys/TiO2 were found to be mainly composed of anatase and some rutile phases. The x%Cu/1.5%Cys/TiO2-x wt% GR nanocomposites revealed to have a red shift in its light absorption wavelength, reflecting the narrowing of the band gap, which was not the case with x%Cu/1.5%Cys/TiO2. The nanocomposite containing 0.5 mol% Cu/1.5 mol% Cys/TiO2-15 wt% GR was found to be a very efficient photocatalyst for degrading MO under UV and visible light, which can be due to the presence of GR nanosheets and the resulting enhancement in the lifetime of the photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as well as the faster interfacial charge transfer rates.

Keywords

Photocatalyst Nano-scale TiO2 Graphene Sol–gel Nanocomposites 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Rostami M, Zamani RM, Aghajanzadeh KM, Danafar H (2017) Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of zinc ferrite–graphene nano-hybrids for photo-catalytic degradation of the paracetamol. J Pharm Investig 48:657–664.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-017-0362-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fujishima A, Zhang X (2006) Titanium dioxide photocatalysis: present situation and future approaches. C R Chim 9:750–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pourmohamadian H, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Sheikhzadeh GA, Tabrizi HB (2018) Preparation of SrTiO3-microencapsulated palmitic acid by means of a sol–gel approach as thermal energy storage materials. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 29:794–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Ahmadi F, Eghbali-Arani M (2016) Simple morphology-controlled fabrication of CdTiO3 nanoparticles with the aid of different capping agents. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 27:13294–13299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rostami M, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Ganjali MR, Ahmadi F, Fallah Shojaei A, Delavar Rafiee M (2017) Facile synthesis and characterization of TiO2–graphene–ZnFe2−xTbxO4 ternary nano-hybrids. J Mater Sci 52:7008–7016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Ahmadi F, Fosooni A (2017) Influence of capping agents additives on morphology of CeVO4 nanoparticles and study of their photocatalytic properties. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 28:537–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmadi F, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Behpour M (2017) Synthesis Nd2TiO5 nanoparticles with different morphologies by novel approach and its photocatalyst application. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 28:1531–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eskandarloo H, Badiei A, Behnajady MA, Ziarani GM (2015) Photo and chemical reduction of copper onto anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced surface hydroxyl groups as efficient visible light photocatalysts. Photochem Photobiol 9:779–806Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eskandarloo H, Badiei A, Behnajady MA, Afshar M (2015) Enhanced photocatalytic removal of phenazopyridine by using silver-impregnated SiO2–TiO2 nanoparticles: optimization of synthesis variables. Res Chem Intermed 41:9929–9949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eskandarloo H, Badiei A, Behnajady MA, Ziarani GM (2014) Minimization of electrical energy consumption in the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by using immobilized Mg, Ag co-impregnated TiO2 nanoparticles. RSC Adv 4:28587–28596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rostami M, Aghajanzadeh M, Zamani M, Manjili HK, Danafar H (2018) Sono-chemical synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4@mTiO2-GO nanocarriers for dual-targeted colon drug delivery. Res Chem Intermed 44:1889–1904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Han W, Zang C, Huang Z, Zhang H, Ren L, Qi X, Zhong J (2014) Enhanced photocatalytic activities of three-dimensional graphene-based aerogel embedding TiO2 nanoparticles and loading MoS2 nanosheets as co-catalyst. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:19502–19512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tavakoli F, Badiei A, Yazdian F, Ziarani GM, Ghasemi J (2017) Optimization of influential factors on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2–graphene composite in degradation of an organic dye by RSM methodology. J Clust Sci 28:2995–2979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Khoshroo A, Mazloum-Ardakani M (2017) Electrochemical determination of diazepam in real samples based on fullerene-functionalized carbon nanotubes/ionic liquid nanocomposite. Sensors Actuators B 240:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zamani M, Rostami M, Aghajanzadeh M, Manjili HK, Rostamizadeh K, Danafar H (2018) Mesoporous titanium dioxide@zinc oxide–graphene oxide nanocarriers for colon-specific drug delivery. J Mater Sci 53:1634–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Amani J, Maleki M, Khoshroo A, Sobhani-Nasab A, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M (2018) An electrochemical immunosensor based on poly p-phenylenediamine and graphene nanocomposite for detection of neuron-specific enolase via electrochemically amplified detection. Anal Biochem 548:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rahimi-Nasrabadi M, Rostami M, Ahmadi F, Fallah Shojaei A, Delavar Rafiee M (2016) Synthesis and characterization of ZnFe2−xYbxO4–graphene nanocomposites by sol–gel method. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 27:11940–11945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dhanabalan SC, Ponraj JS, Zhang H, Bao Q (2016) Present perspectives of broadband photodetectors based on nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanosheets and the emerging 2D materials. Nanoscale 8:6410–6434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang J, Wang X, Xia P, Wang X, Huang J, Chen J, Louangsouphom B, Zhao J (2016) Enhanced sunlight photocatalytic activity and recycled Ag–N co-doped TiO2 supported by expanded graphite C/C composites for degradation of organic pollutants. Res Chem Intermed 42:5541–5557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miyamoto NS, Miyamoto R, Giamello E, Kurisaki T, Wakita H (2018) Characterization and photocatalytic properties of lutetium ion-doped titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Res Chem Intermed 44:4577–4594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang H, Lv XJ, Li YM, Wang Y, Li JH (2010) P25-graphene composite as a high performance photocatalyst. ACS Nano 4:380–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Du A, Ng YH, Bell NJ, Zhu Z, Amal R, Smith SC (2011) Hybrid graphene/titania nanocomposite: interface charge transfer, hole doping, and sensitization for visible light response. Phys Chem Lett 2:894–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang Y, Shen H, Liu Y (2016) Cooperation among N, F and Fe in tri-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. Res Chem Intermed 42:6265–6287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Subramanian M, Vijayalakshmi S, Venkataraj S, Jayavet R (2008) Effect of cobalt doping on the structural and optical properties of TiO2 films prepared by sol–gel process. Thin Solid Films 516:3776–3782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jabbari V, Veleta JM, Zarei-Chaleshtori M, Gardea-Torresdey J, Villagrán D (2016) Green synthesis of magnetic MOF@GO and MOF@CNT hybrid nanocomposites with high adsorption capacity towards organic pollutants. Chem Eng J 304:774–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu F, Li X, Liu W, Zhang S (2017) Highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue over the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions. Appl Surf Sci 405:60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Amani J, Khoshroo A, Rahimi-Nasrabadi M (2018) Electrochemical immunosensor for the breast cancer marker CA 15–3 based on the catalytic activity of a CuS/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite towards the electrooxidation of catechol. Microchim Acta 79:185–192Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jabbari V, Hamadanian M, Reisi-Vanani A, Razi P, Hoseinifard S, Villagran D (2016) Band gap and Schottky barrier engineered photocatalyst with promising solar light activity for water remediation. RSC Adv 6:15678–15685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shi JY, Leng WH, Zhu WC, Zhang JQ, Cao CN (2006) Electrochemically assisted photocatalytic oxidation of nitrite over Cr-doped TiO2 under visible light. Chem Eng Technol 29:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shao GS, Zhang XJ, Yuan ZY (2008) Preparation and photo-catalytic activity of hierarchically mesoporous-macroporous TiO2-xNx. Appl Catal B 82:208–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Szabo T, Berkesi O, Forgo P, Josepovits K, Sanakis Y, Petridis D, Dekany I (2006) Evolution of surface functional groups in a series of progressively oxidized graphite oxides. Chem Mater 18:2740–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Qiong TF, Ping HL, Sheng GG (2001) Preparation of TiO2 nanometer powders. J Inorg Mater 16:615–619Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hamadanian M, Reisi-Vanani A, Razi P, Hoseinifard S, Jabbari V (2013) Photodeposition-assisted synthesis of novel nanoparticulate in, S-codoped TiO2 powders with high visible light-driven photocatalytic activity. Appl Surf Sci 285:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hamadanian M, Jabbari V, Shamshiri M, Asad M, Mutlay I (2013) Preparation of novel hetero-nanostructures and high efficient visible light-active photocatalyst using incorporation of CNT as an electron-transfer channel into the support TiO2 and PbS. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 44:748–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hamadanian M, Shamshiri M, Jabbari V (2014) Novel high potential visible-light-active photocatalyst of CNT/Mo, S-codoped TiO2 hetero-nanostructure. Appl Surf Sci 317:302–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wu Z, Dong F, Zhao W, Wang H, Liu Y, Guan B (2009) The fabrication and characterization of novel carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes, nanowires and nanorods with high visible light photocatalytic activity. Nanotechnology 20:235701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eskandarloo H, Badiei A, Behnajady MA, Ziarani GM (2015) Ultrasonic-assisted sol–gel synthesis of samarium, cerium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with enhanced sonocatalytic efficiency. Ultrason Sonochem 26:281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamadanian M, Karimzadeh S, Jabbari V, Villagran D (2016) Synthesis of cysteine, cobalt and copper-doped TiO2 nanophotocatalysts with excellent visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. Mater Sci Semicond Process 41:168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jabbari V, Hamadanian M, Karimzadeh S, Villagrán D (2016) Enhanced charge carrier efficiency and solar light-induced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles through doping of silver nanoclusters and C–N–S nonmetals. J Ind Eng Chem 35:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pongwan P, Wetchakun K, Phanichphant S, Wetchakun N (2016) Enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity of Cu-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Res Chem Intermed 42:2815–2830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kong L, Zhang X, Wang C, Wan F, Li L (2017) Synergic effects of CuxO electron transfer co-catalyst and valence band edge control over TiO2 for efficient visible-light photocatalysis. Chin J Catal 38:2120–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Niu X, Yu J, Wang L, Fu C, Wang J, Wang L, Zhao H, Yang J (2017) Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2 nanotube based heterojunction photocatalyst via the coupling of graphene and FTO. Appl Surf Sci 413:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Qi K, Cheng B, Yu J, Ho W (2017) A review on TiO2-based Z-scheme photocatalysts. Chin J Catal 38:1936–1955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hamadanian M, Rostami M, Jabbari V (2017) Graphene-supported C–N–S tridoped TiO2 photo-catalyst with improved band gap and charge transfer properties. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 27:15637–15646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Haibin L, Xuechen D, Guocong L, Lili L (2008) Synthesis and characterization of copper ions surface-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes. Mater Res Bull 43:1971–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nguyen DCT, Cho KY, Oh WC (2017) Synthesis of frost-like CuO combined graphene-TiO2 by self-assembly method and its high photocatalytic performance. Appl Surf Sci 412:252–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rostami M (2017) Construction of La-doped TiO2@La-doped ZnO–B-doped reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites for improved visible light photocatalytic activity. RSC Adv 7:43424–43431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lv K, Fang S, Si L, Xia Y, Ho W, Li M (2017) Fabrication of TiO2 nanorod assembly grafted rGO (rGO@TiO2-NR) hybridized flake-like photocatalyst. Appl Surf Sci 391:218–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wen NJ, Li X, Liu W, Fang Y, Xie J, Xu Y (2015) Photocatalysis fundamentals and surface modification of TiO2 nanomaterials. Chin J Catal 36:2049–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang BT, Zheng X, Li HF, Lin JM (2013) Application of carbon-based nanomaterials in sample preparation: a review. Anal Chim Acta 784:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Li X, Shen R, Ma S, Chen X, Xie J (2018) Graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts. Appl Surf Sci 430:53–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Li X, Yu J, Wageh S, Al-Ghamdi AA, Xie J (2016) Graphene in photocatalysis: a review. Small 12:6640–6696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Li Q, Li X, Wageh S, Al-Ghamdi AA, Yu J (2015) CdS/graphene nanocomposite photocatalysts. Adv Energy Mater 5:1500010CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings InstituteBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Institute of Nanosciences and NanotechnologyUniversity of KashanKashanIran
  4. 4.Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of KashanKashanIran
  5. 5.Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, School of Chemistry, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  6. 6.Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular- Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations