Solid solutions of hexanoyl chitosan/poly(vinyl chloride) blends and NaI for all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells
- 23 Downloads
Solid solutions of hexanoyl chitosan/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blends comprising sodium iodide (NaI) were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry results reveal that (i) hexanoyl chitosan and PVC are immiscible and (ii) preferential interaction of NaI with hexanoyl chitosan than PVC. X-ray diffraction results show that the presence of PVC hinders the crystallinity of hexanoyl chitosan and the sample with lower crystallinity exhibits higher conductivity. The maximum conductivities acquired for neat hexanoyl chitosan, PVC, and the blend system are 1.3 × 10−6, 2.9 × 10−8, and 1.5 × 10−5 S cm−1, respectively. The number and mobility of ions were calculated using impedance spectroscopy to elucidate the conductivity variation. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employing hexanoyl chitosan/PVC–NaI electrolytes was investigated with respect to NaI content. With 30 wt% of NaI, DSSC shows an efficiency (η) of 2.93% with short circuit current density (Jsc) of 8.62 mA cm−2 and open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58 V. The presence of 4-tert-butylpyridine and guanidinium thiocyanate increases the η to 5.31%, the Jsc to 17.69 mA cm−2, and the Voc to 0.65 V. Improvement of DSSC performance is by passivating the TiO2 surface from recombination.
KeywordsHexanoyl chitosan PVC Polymer blend Conductivity Dye-sensitized solar cells
The authors wish to thank Universiti Teknologi MARA for supporting this work through DANA 5/3 REI (2/2017) REI and F.H. Muhammad thanks the University for the scholarship awarded.
- 13.Winie T, Shahril NSM (2015) Conductivity enhancement by controlled percolation of inorganic salt in multiphase hexanoyl chitosan/polystyrene polymer blends. Front Mater Sci 9:132–140Google Scholar
- 15.Winie T, Jamal A, Hanif NSM, Shahril NSM (2014) Hexanoyl chitosan-polystyrene blend based composite polymer electrolyte with surface treated TiO2 fillers. Key Eng Mater 594–595:656–660Google Scholar
- 30.Winie T, Arof AK (2014) Impedance spectroscopy: basic concepts and application for electrical evaluation of polymer electrolytes. In: Chan CH, Chua CH, Thomas S (eds) Physical chemistry of macromolecules. Apple Academic Press, USA, pp 335–363Google Scholar
- 31.Arof AK, Amirudin S, Yusof SZ, Noor IM (2014) A method based on impedance spectroscopy to determine transport properties of polymer electrolytes. R Soc Chem 16:1856–1867Google Scholar
- 32.Qian X, Gu N, Cheng Z, Yang X, Wang E, Dong S (2011) Impedance study of (PEO)10LiClO4-Al2O3 composite polymer electrolyte with blocking electrodes. Electrochim Acta 46:18–29Google Scholar
- 37.Sim K, Sung S, Jo HJ, Jeon D, Kim D (2013) Electrochemical investigation of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on molybdenum for preparation of counter electrode. Int J Electrochemical Science 8:8272–8281Google Scholar