, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 1083–1090 | Cite as

Sol-gel synthesis of porous Na3Fe2(PO4)3 with enhanced sodium-ion storage capability

  • Yongjie Cao
  • Yao Liu
  • Tong Chen
  • Xiuping Xia
  • Lai-Chang Zhang
  • Junxi ZhangEmail author
  • Yongyao XiaEmail author
Original Paper


Porous Na3Fe2(PO4)3 has been synthesized via a sol-gel method using citric acid as a metal ion complexing agent and polyvinyl alcohol as a structure-guiding agent. The obtained porous Na3Fe2(PO4)3 with particle size distribution of 40–60 nm has a typical NASICON structure in a space group of C2/c and the specific surface area is 40.2 m2 g−1. Electrochemical measurement results indicate that the initial discharge-specific capacity of porous Na3Fe2(PO4)3 is up to 92.5 mAh g−1 and maintains at 86 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 20 mA g−1 (92% of theoretical capacity) and the corresponding coulombic efficiency is up to 100% as well as high rate capability performance (71.5 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles under 500 mA g−1). The excellent electrochemical properties are attributed to its particular [Fe2(PO4)3] “lantern units” stacked crystal structure and porous morphology, which significantly improves intercalation/de-intercalation kinetic of sodium ions.

Graphical abstract

Porous Na3Fe2(PO4)3 was synthesized via a simple sol-gel method using citric acid as a metal ion complexing agent and polyvinyl alcohol as a structure-guiding agent, which acted as cathode material in sodium-ion batteries. It showed very long cycle stability and kept high reversible-specific discharge capacity of 71.5 mAh g−1 at the current rate of 5 C, with the very flat voltage plateaus located at about 2.5 V.


Sol-gel method Porous Na3Fe2(PO4)3 Sodium-ion batteries 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by the financial support of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (14DZ2261000). This work was supported by the national key research and development Program of China (2016YFB0901500).

Supplementary material

11581_2018_2804_MOESM1_ESM.doc (4.8 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 4881 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric PowerShanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Institute of New EnergyFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of EngineeringEdith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia

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