, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 2501–2507 | Cite as

Synthesis of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3-xBax)O2 cathode materials for lithium-ion rechargeable battery by glycine-nitrate combustion process

  • T. H. N. G. Amaraweera
  • Athula WijayasingheEmail author
  • B.-E. Millander
Original Paper


This study was based on developing Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3-xBax)O2 (x = 0.04, 0.08, 0.11, 0.22, and 0.33) materials by substituting expensive Co with Ba, for the use in the cathode of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Glycine-nitrate combustion method, which is a low-cost combustion technique, was employed to synthesize spherical shaped micron size secondary particles formed by densely agglomerated primary particles. The phase analysis performed by the X-ray diffractometry revealed the formation of the required layered phase of R-3m structure with trace amounts of a secondary phase. Furthermore, these Ba-substituted novel materials showed considerably higher electrical conductivity than those of the Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 base material. In the cell performance studies, the Ba-substituted cathode materials synthesized in this study showed slightly lower initial discharge capacity of 162.4 mA h g−1 but with considerably improved cycle performance compared to those of the Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 base material (187.7 mA h g−1). More importantly, the Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3-xBax)O2, x = 0.04 material clearly showed its ability to eliminate and prevent structural transformation usually associated with excess Li extraction at potentials above 4.5 V. Therefore, the Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3-xBax)O2, x = 0.04 material can be proposed as a potential candidate for the high-voltage cathode application of LIB.


Li-ion batteries Doping Materials preparations Cathodes 


Funding information

This study received financial assistance from the Human Resources Development (HRD) program of the Higher Education for Twenty-First Century (HETC) project of Ministry of Higher Education, Sri Lanka.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. H. N. G. Amaraweera
    • 1
    • 2
  • Athula Wijayasinghe
    • 1
    Email author
  • B.-E. Millander
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Fundamental StudiesKandySri Lanka
  2. 2.Department of Science and TechnologyUva Wellassa UniversityBadullaSri Lanka
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsChalmers University of TechnologyGöteborySweden

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