, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 2693–2700 | Cite as

Electrochemical characterization of NaClO4–mixed rice starch as a cost-effective and environment-friendly electrolyte

  • Madhavi Yadav
  • Gayatri Nautiyal
  • Akanksha Verma
  • Manindra Kumar
  • Tuhina Tiwari
  • Neelam SrivastavaEmail author
Original Paper


Being eco-friendly, cost-effective, easy to synthesize and handle, starch-based electrolytes have tremendous advantages for electrochemical device fabrications. Starch electrolytes synthesized by crosslinking process result in stable, flexible, free-standing films which can be molded in different shapes and sizes. Rice starch–based material, prepared using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker and NaClO4 as ion-providing salt, resulted in high conductivity (~ 0.01 S/cm) and fast-relaxing (ion relaxation time in micro seconds) electrolytes having wide electrochemical stability window (~ 3 V). Resistance of highest conducting sample, having 0.8 mm thickness and 1 × 1 cm2 area is ~ 6 Ω. The synthesized electrolyte is easily moldable in desired shape and size and hence devices may be fabricated with smaller equivalent series resistance. The estimated relaxation time is 62 μs indicating that fabricated devices will be able to deliver energy in shorter time. The approximate preparation cost of the material (1 × 1 × 0.08 cm3) is INR 20 (~ 0.3USD). The low cost, good technical parameters, and flexibility make it a promising material for electrochemical device fabrication.

Graphical abstract


Electrolyte Electrochemical stability window Cyclic voltammetry Biopolymer Fast ion relaxation 


Funding information

Authors (NS and MY) are thankful to the University Grant Commission (New Delhi) for supporting the project entitled “Synthesis & Electrical Characterization of Starch based Electrolyte Systems” through project sanction no 42-814/2013 (SR) dated 22 March 2013. Author MK is thankful to UGC for providing RGNF and PDF SS/2015-17 fellowship, and author TT is thankful to the Department of Science and Technology (New Delhi) for “Women Scientist” fellowship through the project sanction no DST/Disha/SoRF-PM/012/2015(G) dated 03 November 2016.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madhavi Yadav
    • 1
  • Gayatri Nautiyal
    • 2
  • Akanksha Verma
    • 2
  • Manindra Kumar
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tuhina Tiwari
    • 1
  • Neelam Srivastava
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physics (MMV)Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsBanasthali VidyapithBanasthaliIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsD.D.U. Gorakhpur UniversityGorakhpurIndia

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