, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 1215–1222 | Cite as

RuO2 modification of graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes as excellent positive electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

  • Mir Ghasem HosseiniEmail author
  • Seyedabolfazl Mousavihashemi
Original Paper


Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are one of the most appealing candidates for large-scale energy storage, and hence, they have to get more developed to overwhelm commercialization obstacles such as high price of membrane and vanadium electrolyte. In this work, we have synthesized “graphene oxide (GO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-RuO2” as positive electrode material for VRFBs. The mixture of GO and MWCNT was prepared, and then, it was modified with RuO2 nanoparticles. The FE-SEM and XRD were utilized to investigate the morphology and structure of as-prepared electrocatalyst materials. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to look into the electrochemical performance of as-prepared electrocatalyst for vanadium IV/V redox couple reaction. GO-MWCNT-RuO2 reduced the charge transfer resistance from 223.20 Ω (MWCNT) and 186.60 Ω (GO-MWCNT) to 94.25 Ω. The voltammograms showed that peak separation potential was decreased from 605 mV for MWCNT down to 134 mV for GO-MWCNT-RuO2.


Vanadium redox flow battery Graphene oxide Multiwalled carbon nanotube Ruthenium oxide Electrocatalyst 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of Iranian National Committee of Nanotechnology in Ministry of Science, Research and Technology and the office of Vice Chancellor in Charge of Research of University of Tabriz and Near East University in North Cyprus. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Also, the authors would like to acknowledge Dr. E. Shahryari for her assistance in synthesis of Graphene oxide-MWCNT-RuO2.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mir Ghasem Hosseini
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Seyedabolfazl Mousavihashemi
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Physical ChemistryUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Engineering FacultyNear East UniversityMersinTurkey

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