Advertisement

Ionics

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 809–826 | Cite as

Influence of surface defects and preferential orientation in nanostructured Ce-doped SnO2 thin films by nebulizer spray deposition for lowering the LPG sensing temperature to 150 °C

  • Boben ThomasEmail author
  • S. Deepa
  • K. Prasanna Kumari
Original Paper
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Cerium-doped (0.1 to 6 wt.%) nanostructured SnO2 thin films are prepared via nebulizer spray deposition process. The analyses show that the films grow in (301) and (211) preferred orientations. The fabricated sensing films are exposed to LPG at different ppm concentrations and different operating temperatures. In 500 ppm of LPG at an operating temperature of 350 °C, an impressive sensitivity of 89.2 with response time of 7 s and recovery time of 9 s is shown by 2 wt.% Ce-doped film, where the sensitivity is almost 18 times higher than that of pristine SnO2 film. The sensitivities get reduced to 25 at lesser operating temperature of 300 °C and to 1.17 at 150 °C. The films show significant selectivity to CO2, especially at operating temperatures above 300 °C. Raman and photoluminescence studies give an insight into oxygen vacancies and trapped states which influence the enhanced gas response.

Keywords

SnO2 Nanoparticle Thin film Spray pyrolysis LPG sensor Oxygen vacancy 

Notes

Funding information

This study is financially supported by the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India by means of MRP to BT (F.38-128/2009 (SR)) dated 19-12-2009, the Faculty Improvement Fellowship to DS from the UGC (SWRO/FIP 12th Plan/ KLMG 038 TF-06), and the Kerala SCSTE assistance to PKK (822/DIR/2014-15/KSCSTE dated 09.02.2015).

References

  1. 1.
    Monereo O, Casals O, Prades JD, Cirera A (2015) A low-cost approach to low-power gas sensors based on self-heating effects in large arrays of nanostructures. Procedia Eng 120:787–790Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yamazoe N, Shimanoe K (2011) Theoretical approach to the gas response of oxide semiconductor film devices under control of gas diffusion and reaction effects. Sensors Actuators B Chem 154:277–282Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Patil LA, Shinde MD, Bari AR, Deo VV (2009) Highly sensitive and quickly responding ultrasonically sprayed nanostructured SnO2 thin films for hydrogen gas sensing. Sensors Actuators B Chem 143:270–277Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deepa S, Kumari KP, Thomas B (2017) Contribution of oxygen-vacancy defect-types in enhanced CO2 sensing of nanoparticulate Zn-doped SnO2 films. Ceram Int 43:17128–17141Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen CH, Kelder EM, Schoonman J (1998) Effects of additives in electrospraying for materials preparation. J Eur Ceram Soc 18:1439–1443Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim SG, Choi KH, Eun JH, Kim HJ, Hwang CS (2000) Effects of additives on properties of MgO thin films by electrostatic spray deposition. Thin Solid Films 377:694–698Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yan S, Liang X, Song H, Ma S, Lu Y (2018) Synthesis of porous CeO2-SnO2 nanosheets gas sensors with enhanced sensitivity. Ceram Int 44:358–363Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liang Y-C, Lee C-M, Lo Y-J (2017) Reducing gas-sensing performance of Ce-doped SnO2 thin films through a cosputtering method. RSC Adv 7:4724–4734Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pourfayaz F, Khodadadi A, Mortazavi Y, Mohajerzadeh SS (2005) CeO2 doped SnO2 sensor selective to ethanol in presence of CO, LPG and CH4. Sensors Actuators B 108:172–176Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bagal LK, Patil JY, Mulla IS, Suryavanshi SS (2012) Studies on the resistive response of nickel and cerium doped SnO2 thick films to acetone vapour. Ceram Int 38:6171–6179Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Song P, Wang Q, Yang Z (2012) Preparation, characterization and acetone sensing properties of Ce-doped SnO2 hollow spheres. Sensors Actuators B 173:839–846Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bagal KN, Bagal LK, Mulla IS, Suryavanshi SS (2014) Influence of Cu, Ce-doping on gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline SnO2 thick films. Int J Chem Phys Sci Special Issue – NCETNN (Dec) 3:25–33Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thomas B, Benoy S, Radha KK (2008) Influence of Cs doping in spray deposited SnO2 thin films for LPG sensors. Sensors Actuators B Chem 133:404–413Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mihaiu S, Postole G, Carata M, Caldararu M, Crisan D, Dragan N, Zaharescu M (2004) The structure properties correlation in the Ce-doped SnO2 materials obtained by different synthesis routes. J Eur Ceram Soc 24:963–967Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bagal LK, Patil JY, Bagal KN, Mulla IS, Suryavanshi SS (2013) Acetone vapour sensing characteristics of undoped and Zn, Ce doped SnO2 thick film gas sensor. Mater Res Innov 17:98–105Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohanapriya P, Segawa H, Watanabe K, Watanabe K, Samitsu S, Natarajan TS, Jaya NV, Ohashi N (2013) Enhanced ethanol-gas sensing performance of Ce-doped SnO2 hollow nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. Sensors Actuators B Chem 188:872–878Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liang YC, Lee CM, Lo YJ (2017) Reducing gas-sensing performance of Ce-doped SnO2 thin films through a co-sputtering method. RSC Adv 7:4724–4734Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Song P, Wang Q, Yang Z (2012) Preparation, characterization and acetone sensing properties of Ce-doped SnO2 hollow spheres. Sens. Actuators B 173:839–846Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sankar C, Ponnuswamy V, Manickam M, Suresh R, Mariappan R, Vinod PS (2016) Structural, morphological, optical and gas sensing properties of pure and Ce doped SnO2 thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis (JNSP) technique. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 28:4577–4585Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bari RH, Khadayate RS, Patil SB, Bari AR, Jain GH, Patil LA, Kale BB (2012) Preparation, characterization and H2S sensing performance of sprayed nanostructured SnO2 thin films. ISRN Nanotechnology 734325:1–5Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thomas B, Skariah B (2015) Spray deposited Mg-doped SnO2 thin film LPG sensor: XPS and EDX analysis in relation to deposition temperature and doping. J Alloys Compd 625:231–240Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holzwarth U, Gibson N (2011) The Scherrer equation versus the ‘Debye-Scherrer equation’. Nat Nanotechnol 6:534–534Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bedir M, Öztaş M, Bakkaloğlu ÖF, Ormanci R (2005) Investigations on structural, optical and electrical parameters of spray deposited ZnSe thin films with different substrate temperature. Eur Phys J B-Condensed Matter Complex Syst 45:465–471Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deepa S, PrasannaKumari K, Thomas B (2017) Influence of lattice strain and dislocations on the LPG sensing performance of praseodymium doped SnO2 nanostructured thin films. IJRASET 5:1054–1059Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Slater B, Catlow CRA, Gay DH, Williams DE, Dusastre V (1999) Study of surface segregation of antimony on SnO2 surfaces by computer simulation techniques. J Phys Chem B 103:10644–10650Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Consonni V, Rey G, Roussel H, Bellet D (2012) Thickness effects on the texture development of fluorine-doped SnO2 thin films: the role of surface and strain energy. J Appl Phys 111:033523–033527Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mishra VN, Agarwal RP (1998) Sensitivity, response and recovery time of SnO2 based thick-film sensor array for H2, CO, CH4 and LPG. Microelectron J 29:861–874Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Patil GE, Kajale DD, Chavan DN, Pawar NK, Ahire PT, Shinde SD, Gaikwad VB, Jain GH (2011) Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing performance of SnO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. Bull Mater Sci 34:1–9Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Garje AD, Aiyer RC (2006) Electrical and gas-sensing properties of a thick film resistor of nanosized SnO2 with variable percentage of permanent binder. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 3:477–484Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gebbie MA, Dobbs HA, Valtiner M, Israelachvili JN (2015) Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:7432–7437Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Batzill M, Diebold U (2005) The surface and materials science of tin oxide. Prog Surf Sci 79:47–154Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Diebold U (2003) The surface science of titanium dioxide. Surf Sci Rep 48:53–229Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Haw C, Chiu W, Hamizah KN, Rahman SA, Khiew P, Radiman S, Abd-Shukor R, Abdul Hamid MA (2016) Tin stearate organometallic precursor prepared SnO2 quantum dots nanopowder for aqueous- and non-aqueous medium photocatalytic hydrogen gas evolution. J Energy Chem 25:691–701Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Annanouch FE, Camara M, Ramírez JL, Briand D, Llobet E (2014) Gas sensing properties of metal-decorated tungsten oxide nanowires directly grown onto flexible polymeric hotplates. Procedia Eng 87:700–703Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Diebold U (2003) Structure and properties of TiO2 surfaces: a brief review. Appl Phys A 76:681–687Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ali SM, Hussain ST, Bakar SA, Muhammad J, ur Rehman N (2013) Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties of SnO2 thin films fabricated by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. J Phys: Conf Series 439(1):012013–012010Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cricenti A, Generosi R, Scarselli MA, Perfetti P, Siciliano P, Serra A, Tepore A, Almeida J, Coluzza C, Margaritondo G (1996) Pt:SnO2 thin films for gas sensor characterized by atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy. J Vac Sci Technol B 14:1527–1530Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aragón FH, Coaquira JAH, Gonzalez I, Nagamine LCCM, Macedo WAA, Morais PC (2016) Fe doping effect on the structural, magnetic and surface properties of SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by a polymer precursor method. J Phys D Appl Phys 49:155002 (8pp)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Qin G, Gao F, Jiang Q, Li Y, Liu Y, Luo L, Zhao K, Zhao H (2016) Well-aligned Nd-doped SnO2 nanorods layered array: preparation, characterization and enhanced alcohol-gas sensing performance. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18:5537–5549Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang DJ, Kamienchick I, Youn DY, Rothschild A, Kim ID (2010) Ultrasensitive and highly selective gas sensors based on electrospun SnO2 nanofibers modified by Pd loading. Adv Funct Mater 20:4258–4264Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xue X, Chen Z, Ma C, Xing L, Chen Y, Wang Y, Wang T (2010) One-step synthesis and gas-sensing characteristics of uniformly loaded Pt@SnO2 nanorods. J Phys Chem C 114:3968–3972Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weng Y, Deng D, Zhang L, Su Y, Lv Y (2016) Cataluminescence gas sensor based on mesoporous Mg-doped SnO2 structures for detection of gaseous acetone. Anal Methods 8:7816–7823Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xu S, Kan K, Yang Y, Jiang C, Gao J, Jing L, Shen P, Li L, Shi K (2015) Enhanced NH3 gas sensing performance based on electrospun alkaline-earth metals composited SnO2 nanofibers. J Alloys Comp 618:240–247Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bagus PS, Illas F, Pacchioni G, Parmigiani F (1999) Mechanisms responsible for chemical shifts of core-level binding energies and their relationship to chemical bonding. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 100:215–236Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rothschild A, Komem Y (2004) The effect of grain size on the sensitivity of nanocrystalline metal-oxide gas sensors. J Appl Phys 95:6374–6380Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Miller TA, Bakrania SD, Perez C, Wooldridge MS (2006) Nanostructured tin dioxide materials for gas sensor applications, chap. 30, Functional Nanomaterials, edited by Kurt E. Geckeler and Edward Rosenberg, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Khedmi N, Ben RM, Kanzari M (2014) Thickness dependent structural and optical properties of vacuum evaporated CuIn5S8 thin films. Energy Procedia 44:61–68Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sun SH, Meng GW, Zhang GX, Gao T, Geng BY, Zhang LD, Zuo J (2003) Raman scattering study of rutile SnO2 nanobelts synthesized by thermal evaporation of Sn powders. Chem Phys Lett 376:103–107Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    El-Nahass MM, Soliman HS, El-Denglawey A (2016) Absorption edge shift, optical conductivity, and energy loss function of nano thermal-evaporated N-type anatase TiO2 films. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 122:775–710Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mrabet C, Boukhachem A, Amlouk M, Manoubi T (2016) Improvement of the optoelectronic properties of tin oxide transparent conductive thin films through lanthanum doping. J Alloy Compd 666:392–405Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Türgut G, Keskenler EF, Aydın S, Sönmez E, Doğan S, Düzgün B, Ertuğrul M (2013) Effect of Nb doping on structural, electrical and optical properties of spray deposited SnO2 thin films. Superlattice Microst 56:107–116Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Babar AR, Shinde SS, Moholkar AV, Bhosale CH, Kim JH, Rajpure KY (2011) Sensing properties of sprayed antimony doped tin oxide thin films: solution molarity. J Alloy Compd 509:3108–3115Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Aragon FH, Coaquira JAH, Hidalgo P, Brito SLM, Gouvea D, Castro RHR (2010) Experimental study of the structural, microscopy and magnetic properties of Ni doped SnO2 nanoparticles. J Non-Cryst Solids 356:2960–2964Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Li Y, Yin W, Deng R, Chen R, Chen J, Yan Q, Yao B, Sun H, Wei S-H, Wu T (2012) Realizing a SnO2-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode via breaking the dipole-forbidden rule. NPG Asia Mater 4:e30–e36Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Serpone N (2006) Is the band gap of pristine TiO2 narrowed by anion- and cation-doping of titanium dioxide in second-generation Photocatalysts? J Phys Chem B 110:24287–24293Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liu LZ, Li TH, Wu XL, Shen JC, Chu PK (2012) Identification of oxygen vacancy types from Raman spectra of SnO2 nanocrystals. J Raman Spectrosc 43:1423–1426Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dieguez A, Romano-Rodrıguez A, Vila A, Morante JR (2001) The complete Raman spectrum of nanometric SnO2 particles. J Appl Phys 90:1550–1557Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Judd BR (1962) Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions. Phys Rev 127:750–761Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vanheusden K, Warren WL, Seager CH, Tallant DR, Voigt JA, Gnade BE (1996) Mechanisms behind green photoluminescence in ZnO phosphor powders. J Appl Phys 79:7983–7990Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rani S, Roy SC, Karar N, Bhatnagar MC (2007) Structure, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of Fe doped SnO2 thin films. Solid State Commun 141:214–218Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yang M, Zeng Y, Li Z, Kim DH, Jiang CS, van de Lagemaat J, Zhu K (2017) Do grain boundaries dominate non-radiative recombination in CH3NH3 PbI3 perovskite thin films? Phys Chem Chem Phys 19:5043–5050Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sakai G, Matsunaga N, Shimanoe K, Yamazoe N (2001) Theory of gas-diffusion controlled sensitivity for thin film semiconductor gas sensor. Sens Actuators B 80:125–131Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vlachos DS, Xenoulis AC (1998) Gas detection sensitivity and cluster size. Nanostruct Mater 10:1355–1361Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wang C, Yin L, Zhang L, Xiang D, Gao R (2010) Metal oxide gas sensors: sensitivity and influencing factors. Sensors 10:2088–2106Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chang S (1980) Oxygen chemisorption on tin oxide: correlation between electrical conductivity and EPR measurements. J Vac Sci Technol 17:366–369Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kim S-D, Kim B-J, Yoon J-H, Kim J-S (2007) Design, fabrication and characterization of a low-power gas sensor with high sensitivity to CO gas. J Korean Phys Soc 51:2069–2076Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seal S, Shukla S (2002) Nanocrystalline SnO gas sensors in view of surface reactions and modifications. JOM 54:35–38Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jin Q, Shen Y, Zhu S, Li H, Li Y (2017) Rare earth ions (La, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tm) regulate the catalytic performance of CeO2/Al2O3 for NH3-SCR of NO. J Mater Res 32:2438–2445Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shaikh FI, Chikhale LP, Patil JY, Mulla IS, Suryavanshi SS (2017) Enhanced acetone sensing performance of nanostructured Sm2O3 doped SnO2 thick films. J Rare Earths 35:813–823Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Al-Jawad SMH (2017) Influence of multilayer deposition on characteristics of nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films produce by sol-gel technique for gas sensor application. Optik – Int J Light and Electron Optics 146:17–26Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Patil LA, Patil DR (2006) Heterocontact type CuO-modified SnO2 sensor for the detection of a ppm level H2S gas at room temperature. Sensors Actuators B Chem 120:316–323Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mizsei J (1995) How can sensitive and selective semiconductor gas sensors be made? Sensors Actuators B Chem 23:173–176Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Centre in Physics, Mar Athanasius College (Autonomous)KothamangalamIndia

Personalised recommendations