, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 2755–2761 | Cite as

A green and low-cost synthetic approach based on deep eutectic choline-urea solvent toward synthesis of CZTS thin films

  • Sara AzmiEmail author
  • Luca Pezzato
  • Marco Sturaro
  • El Mati Khoumri
  • Alessandro Martucci
  • Manuele Dabalà
Original Paper


In this paper, a new, simple, and sustainable method of the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin-film synthesis is presented. The CZTS films have been electrochemically deposited by a single-step electrodeposition from deep eutectic (choline-urea) electrolyte, without sulfurization step, onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. − 1.3 V/SCE has been selected as the optimum deposition potentials to grow the CZTS thin films. As-deposited CZTS films were characterized using a range of characterization techniques to study the structural, morphological, and compositional properties and confirmed the presence of the Cu2ZnSnS4 phases. The direct band gap energy for the CZTS thin films is found to be about 1.48 eV.


Thin films Semiconductors Electrodeposition Ionic liquid electrolytes CZTS Choline-urea Photovoltaics Deep eutectic solvents 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Azmi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Luca Pezzato
    • 2
  • Marco Sturaro
    • 2
  • El Mati Khoumri
    • 1
  • Alessandro Martucci
    • 2
  • Manuele Dabalà
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Bioorganic ChemistryFaculty of Science and Technics Mohammedia, University Hassan IICasablancaMorocco
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly

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