, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 133–139 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of Ti-doped MgMn2O4 cathode material for magnesium ion batteries

  • N. H. Zainol
  • D. Hambali
  • Z. OsmanEmail author
  • N. Kamarulzaman
  • R. Rusdi
Original Paper


Magnesium batteries demonstrate potential candidate for next-generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density and low raw-materials costs. In comparison with lithium, magnesium is inherently much safer due to its air stable and environmental friendly. In the present work, magnesium manganese oxide (MgMn2O4) with Ti-doped was synthesized by a self-propagating combustion method using citric acid as a reducing agent. The precursors of MgMn2O4 and MgMn(2-x)TixO4, (x = 0.1) were annealed at 700 °C for 24 h. The prepared samples were further characterized by using Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Then, the optimized sample was used as cathode in magnesium ion battery using polymer-based electrolyte. The charge-discharge profile of the fabricated battery was discussed.


MgMn2O4 Ti-doped Cathode material Mg-ion battery FESEM 



NH Zainol would like to thank MOHE for MyPhD scholarship, University of Malaya for PPP grant PG038-2015A, and also Institute of Science, UiTM Shah Alam for the facilities given. Z Osman would like to thank MOSTI for FP044-2017A grant.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. H. Zainol
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. Hambali
    • 1
    • 2
  • Z. Osman
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • N. Kamarulzaman
    • 3
  • R. Rusdi
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Ionics University of MalayaUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre for Nanomaterials Research, Institute of ScienceUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia

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