, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 3015–3025 | Cite as

Conductivity or rheology? Tradeoff for competing properties in the fabrication of a gel polymer electrolyte based on chitosan-barbiturate derivative

  • Ahmad Danial Azzahari
  • Vidhya Selvanathan
  • Muhammad Rizwan
  • Faridah Sonsudin
  • Rosiyah YahyaEmail author
Original Paper


Chitosan-barbiturate (Ch-Ba) derivative was synthesized to afford organosolubility. Attachment of Ba onto the Ch backbone was confirmed by 1H NMR with peaks at 8.2 and 11.1 ppm, and FTIR with bands at 1679 and 1739 cm−1 belonging to the Ba ring. This derivative was used as a host polymer in the preparation of gel polymer electrolytes. The components of the gel consist of tetrapropylammonium iodide (TPAI) as the salt, SiO2 nanofiller (NF) as the mechanical stabilizer, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the solvent. The necessary formulation required to produce the gel was studied using response surface models by means of artificial neural networks. Electrochemical and rheological behaviors were studied and the simulated model predicted conductivities were as high as 8.51 mS cm−1 while still maintaining a solid-like gel structure in the region where storage modulus dominated loss modulus, G″/G′ < 1.


Chitosan-barbiturate Gel polymer electrolyte Artificial neural network Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Rheology 


Funding information

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this project from the University of Malaya under the University Research Grant number PG028-2014A. A.D. Azzahari would also like to thank the Bright Spark fellowship (BSP/APP/1903/2013).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11581_2018_2515_MOESM1_ESM.doc (196 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 196 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Danial Azzahari
    • 1
  • Vidhya Selvanathan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Rizwan
    • 1
  • Faridah Sonsudin
    • 2
  • Rosiyah Yahya
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Foundation Studies in ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre for Ionics University of Malaya, Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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