, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 2965–2972 | Cite as

A lithium salt additive Li2ZrF6 for enhancing the electrochemical performance of high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

  • Juntian Fan
  • Tao Dong
  • Daliang Fang
  • Xuefeng Li
  • Xian’en Mo
  • Kaihua Wen
  • Shimou ChenEmail author
  • Suojiang ZhangEmail author
Original Paper


In this work, Li2ZrF6, a lithium salt additive, is reported to improve the interface stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO)/electrolyte interface under high voltage (4.9 V vs Li/Li+). Li2ZrF6 is an effective additive to serve as an in situ surface coating material for high-voltage LNMO half cells. A protective SEI layer is formed on the electrode surface due to the involvement of Li2ZrF6 during the formation of SEI layer. Charge/discharge tests show that 0.15 mol L−1 Li2ZrF6 is the optimal concentration for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode and it can improve the cycling performance and rate property of LNMO/Li half cells. The results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrate that Li2ZrF6 can facilitate the formation of a thin, uniform, and stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer. This layer inhibits the oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the dissolution of the cathode materials, resulting in improved electrochemical performances.


Lithium ion batteries Electrolyte Additives Lithium fluorozirconate 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91534109), the “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA09010103), National Key Projects for Fundamental Research and Development of China (No. 2016YFB0100104), and International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams (20140491518).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11581_2018_2512_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (533 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 533 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juntian Fan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tao Dong
    • 1
  • Daliang Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuefeng Li
    • 1
  • Xian’en Mo
    • 1
  • Kaihua Wen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shimou Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Suojiang Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Ionic Liquids Clean Process, Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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