, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 3187–3197 | Cite as

Voltammetric determination of nitrite with gold nanoparticles/poly(methylene blue)-modified pencil graphite electrode: application in food and water samples

  • Ozge Koyun
  • Yucel SahinEmail author
Original Paper


This work presents the preparation and characterization studies of gold nanoparticle/poly(methylene blue) (GNP/PMB)-modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) and its use for electrochemical determination of nitrite. The working electrode (PGE) was functionalized by electropolymerization of methylene blue (MB) and modified with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to produce the final (GNP/PMB/PGE) electrode in a two-step procedure. Characterization and morphology studies of GNP/PMB/PGE were performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The highest peak current response was obtained for nitrite at pH 5.0. A wide linear relationship between the concentration and the oxidation peak currents of nitrite was observed in the concentration range of 5–5000 μM. The limit of detection (0.314 μM, S/N = 3) and reproducibility (RSD = 2.38% for N = 10) have been identified. Finally, the electrode platform was successfully applied to commercial sausage and mineral water samples.


Nitrite Gold nanoparticle Poly(methylene blue) Pencil graphite electrode Differential pulse voltammetry 



We greatly acknowledge Semih Gorduk from the Yildiz Technical University.

Funding information

We express our sincere thanks to the financial support of the Yildiz Technical University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department (project no.: FDK-2017-3130).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and ScienceYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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