Consumer Reshoring Sentiment and Animosity: Expanding Our Understanding of Market Responses to Reshoring

  • Silvia GrappiEmail author
  • Simona Romani
  • Richard P. Bagozzi
Research Article


Although an increasing body of research has focused attention on reshoring, namely, a company’s decision to relocate activities back to the home-country, how and when reshoring impacts market responses remains largely understudied and requires specific theoretical and empirical consideration. Our study complements existing research on reshoring by adopting a demand-side perspective. Through multiple, experimental and survey-based studies, conducted in two countries (Italy and the US), we verified that the interplay between Consumer Reshoring Sentiment (CRS) and Consumer Animosity (CA) leads to specific emotional reactions (gratitude and relief) which, in their turn, affect relevant market responses (positive word of mouth, willingness to buy, advocacy behaviors). Our work provides interesting insights for practitioners and international managers evaluating reshoring; they can capitalize on the positive market responses to reshoring by considering both reshoring sentiments characterizing the home-country market and consumer animosity associated with tensions between the countries involved in the reshoring decision.


Reshoring Location strategy Consumer reshoring sentiment Consumer animosity Market responses 



The authors would like to thank the editors and the two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions.


  1. Antonetti, P., Manika, D., & Katsikeas, C. (2019). Why consumer animosity reduces product quality perceptions: The role of extreme emotions in international crises. International Business Review, 28(4), 739–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagozzi, R. P., Gopinath, M., & Nyer, P. U. (1999). The role of emotions in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbieri, P., Ciabuschi, F., Fratocchi, L., & Vignoli, M. (2017). Manufacturing reshoring explained: An interpretative framework of ten years of research. In A. Vecchi (Ed.), Reshoring of manufacturing. Measuring operations performance (pp. 3–37). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  4. Benstead, A. V., Stevenson, M., & Hendry, L. C. (2017). Why and how do firms reshore? A contingency-based conceptual framework. Operations Management Research, 10(3–4), 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beverland, M. B. (2005). Crafting brand authenticity: The case of luxury wines. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), 1003–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilkey, W. J., & Nes, E. B. (1982). Country of origin effects on product evaluations. Journal of International Business Studies, 13(1), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  8. Canham, S., & Hamilton, R. T. (2013). SME internationalisation: Offshoring, backshoring, or staying at home in New Zealand. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 6(3), 277–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casson, M. (2013). Economic analysis of international supply chains: An internalization perspective. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 49(2), 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. D’Arienzo, B. (2016). Reshoring success stories: What’s branding got to do with it? Apparel. Accessed 25 Sep 2018
  11. Dachs, B., & Kinkel, S. (2013). Backshoring of production activities in European manufacturing: Evidence from a large scale survey. In B. Fynes, & P. Coughlan (Eds.), Operations management at the hearth of the recovery, proceedings of the 20th EurOMA conference.Google Scholar
  12. Dinnie, K. (2008). Nation branding. Concepts, issues, practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  13. Durvasula, S., & Lysonski, S. (2009). How offshore outsourcing is perceived: Why do some consumers feel more threatened? Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 21(1), 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ellram, L. M. (2013). Offshoring, reshoring and the manufacturing location decision. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 49(2), 3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellram, L. M., Tate, W. L., & Petersen, K. J. (2013). Offshoring and reshoring: An update on the manufacturing location decision. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 49(2), 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fratocchi, L., Ancarani, A., Barbieri, P., Di Mauro, C., Nassimbeni, G., Sartor, M., et al. (2016). Motivations of manufacturing reshoring: An interpretative framework. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 46(2), 98–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Funk, C., Arthurs, J., Trevino, L., & Joireman, J. (2010). Consumer animosity in the global value chain: The effect of international production shifts on willingness to purchase hybrid products. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(4), 639–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gineikiene, J., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2017). I hate where it comes from but I still buy it: Countervailing influences of animosity and nostalgia. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(8), 992–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grappi, S., Romani, S., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2013). The effects of company offshoring strategies on consumer responses. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(6), 683–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grappi, S., Romani, S., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2015). Consumer stakeholder responses to reshoring strategies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(4), 453–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grappi, S., Romani, S., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2018). Reshoring from a demand-side perspective: Consumer reshoring sentiment and its market effects. Journal of World Business, 53(2), 194–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gray, J. V., Skowronski, K., Esenduran, G., & Rungtusanatham, J. M. (2013). The reshoring phenomenon: What supply chain academics ought to know and should do. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 49(2), 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harmeling, C. M., Magnusson, P., & Singh, N. (2015). Beyond anger: A deeper look at consumer animosity. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(6), 676–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to moderation, mediation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Herche, J. (1992). A note on the predictive validity of the CETSCALE. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 20(3), 261–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holbrook, M. B., & Hirschman, E. C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kinkel, S. (2012). Trends in production relocation and backshoring activities: Changing patterns in the course of the global economic crisis. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 32(6), 696–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kinkel, S. (2014). Future and impact of backshoring—Some conclusions from 15 years of research on German practices. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 20(1), 63–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klein, J. G. (2002). Us versus them, or us versus everyone? Delineating consumer aversion to foreign goods. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(2), 345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Klein, J., Ettenson, R., & Morris, M. (1998). The animosity model of foreign product purchase: An empirical test in the people’s Republic of China. Journal of Marketing, 62(1), 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  33. Musteen, M., Ahsan, M., & Park, T. (2017). SMEs, intellectual capital, and offshoring of service activities: An empirical investigation. Management International Review, 57(4), 603–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nes, E. B., Yelkur, R., & Silkoset, R. (2012). Exploring the animosity domain and the role of affect in a cross-national context. International Business Review, 21(5), 751–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nijssen, E. J., & Douglas, S. P. (2004). Examining the animosity model in a country with a high level of foreign trade. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(1), 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oberecker, E., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2011). Consumers’ emotional bonds with foreign countries: Does consumer affinity affect Behavioral Intentions? Journal of International Marketing, 19(2), 45–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Obermiller, C., & Spangenberg, E. (1989). Exploring the effects of country-of-origin labels: An information processing framework. In T. K. Srull (Ed.), Advances in consumer research (pp. 454–459). Provo: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  38. Pisani, N., & Ricart, J. E. (2018). Offshoring innovation to emerging countries: The effects of ip protection and cultural differences on firms’ decision to augment versus exploit home-base-knowledge. Management International Review, 58(6), 871–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Priem, R. L., Li, S., & Carr, J. C. (2012). Insights and new directions from demand-side approaches to technology innovation, entrepreneurship, and strategic management research. Journal of Management, 38(1), 346–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Riefler, P., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2007). Consumer animosity: A literature review and a reconsideration of its measurement. International Marketing Review, 24(1), 87–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Romani, S., & Grappi, S. (2014). How companies’ good deeds encourage consumers to adopt pro-social behavior. European Journal of Marketing, 48(5–6), 943–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Romani, S., Grappi, S., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2013). Explaining consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility: The role of gratitude and altruistic values. Journal of Business Ethnics, 114(2), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roseman, I. J. (1984). Cognitive determinants of emotion: A structural theory. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology, 5 (pp. 11–36). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Roseman, I. J. (1996). Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. Cognition and Emotion, 10(3), 241–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roseman, I. J. (2017). Comment: Frameworks for theory and research on positive emotions. Emotion Review, 9(3), 238–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sauter, D. A. (2017). The nonverbal communication of positive emotions: An emotion family approach. Emotion Review, 9(3), 222–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharma, P. (2011). Country of origin effects in developed and emerging markets: Exploring the contrasting roles of materialism and value consciousness. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(2), 285–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: Construction and validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shoham, A., & Gavish, Y. (2016). Antecedents and buying behavior consequences of consumer racism, national identification, consumer animosity, and consumer ethnocentrism. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 28(5), 296–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Siqueira, A. C. O., Priem, R. L., & Parente, R. C. (2015). Demand-side perspectives in international business: Themes and future directions. Journal of International Management, 21(4), 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith, P. (2014). Flowback or the end of globalization. IIM Kozhikode Society and Management Review, 3(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thelen, S. T., & Shapiro, T. (2012). Predicting negative consumer reactions to service offshoring. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(3), 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thelen, S. T., Yoo, B., & Magnini, V. P. (2011). An examination of consumer sentiment toward offshored services. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(2), 270–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Thomson, M., MacInnis, D. J., & Park, C. W. (2005). The ties that bind: Measuring the strength of consumers’ emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Verlegh, P. W. J. (2007). Home-country bias in product evaluation: The complementary roles of economic and socio-psychological motives. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(3), 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wu, X., & Zhang, F. (2014). Home or overseas? An analysis of sourcing strategies under competition. Management Science, 60(5), 1223–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zellmer-Bruhn, M., Caligiuri, P., & Thomas, D. C. (2016). From the editors: Experimental designs in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(4), 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zeugner-Roth, K. P., Zabkar, V., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2015). Consumer ethnocentrism national identity, and consumer cosmopolitanism as drivers of consumer behavior: A social identity theory perspective. Journal of International Marketing, 23(2), 25–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication and EconomicsUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaReggio EmiliaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Business and ManagementLUISS Guido CarliRomeItaly
  3. 3.Stephen M. Ross School of BusinessUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations