Cognitive Neurodynamics

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 357–365 | Cite as

Plasma total antioxidant status and cognitive impairments in first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia

  • Ting Xie
  • Qiongwei Li
  • Xingguang Luo
  • Li Tian
  • Zhiren Wang
  • Shuping Tan
  • Song Chen
  • Guigang Yang
  • Huimei An
  • Fude Yang
  • Yunlong TanEmail author
Research Article


Accumulating evidence suggest that excessive reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage may underlie neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in several disorders including schizophrenia. In this study we examined the association of oxidative stress with cognitive deficits in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 54 FEDN patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and examined the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus cognitive Battery (MCCB) and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The results showed that plasma TAS levels were significantly lower in the patients than those in the healthy subjects (94.7 ± 25.0 U/ml vs 156.6 ± 46.7 U/ml, p < 0.0001). The patients scored lower than healthy controls on the MCCB total score, speed of processing, attention/vigilance and managing emotion test index and STROOP test. For the patients, TAS was associated with some domains of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, such as speed of processing, attention/vigilance and emotion managing. Our results suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia at the early of stage and its cognitive impairment.


Schizophrenia Cognitive function MCCB Oxidative stress Total antioxidant capacity 



Analysis of variance


Acute tryptophan depletion


Brief Visuospatial Memory Test


First-episode drug-naïve


First-episode patients


Ferric reducing antioxidant potential


Hopkins Verbal Learning Test


Long time potentiation


Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus cognitive Battery and plasma


Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test


Neuropsychological assessment battery


Oxidative stress


Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale


Reactive oxygen species


Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV


Total antioxidant status


Tripyridyl triazine



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81761128021), and by Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (7151005).

Authors’ contributions

TX collect the subjects and clinical rating, wrote the protocol, conducted the analysis and wrote the article. QL conducted the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus cognitive Battery (MCCB) and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) data analysis. XL, LT and ZW gave the critical comment for the study design. ST, SC and GY reference search and gave the idea for study design. HA, FY, XZ, YT gave the idea for study design.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests and consent for publication is available.

Ethics approval

The study was approved by the ethics committee of Beijing Huilongguan Hospital. After a complete description of the study to all participants, the written informed consent was obtained.

Availability of data and material

All data are fully available without restriction.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ting Xie
    • 1
  • Qiongwei Li
    • 1
  • Xingguang Luo
    • 2
  • Li Tian
    • 3
  • Zhiren Wang
    • 1
  • Shuping Tan
    • 1
  • Song Chen
    • 1
  • Guigang Yang
    • 1
  • Huimei An
    • 1
  • Fude Yang
    • 1
  • Yunlong Tan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Peking University HuiLongGuan Clinical Medical SchoolBeijing Huilongguan HospitalBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Neuroscience CenterUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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