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Mycological Progress

, Volume 18, Issue 8, pp 983–1003 | Cite as

Spider-pathogenic fungi within Hypocreales (Ascomycota): their current nomenclature, diversity, and distribution

  • Bhushan ShresthaEmail author
  • Alena Kubátová
  • Eiji Tanaka
  • Junsang Oh
  • Deok-Hyo Yoon
  • Jae-Mo Sung
  • Gi-Ho SungEmail author
Review

Abstract

Spider-pathogenic fungi are widely distributed in the world. Our review shows at least eighty six spider- and harvestman-pathogenic fungi that are currently accommodated in genera Akanthomyces Lebert, Beauveria Vuill., Clonostachys Corda, Cordyceps Fr., Engyodontium de Hoog, Gibellula Cavara, Hevansia Luangsa-ard et al., Hirsutella Pat., Hymenostilbe Petch, Lecanicillium W. Gams & Zare, Ophiocordyceps Petch, Purpureocillium Luangsa-ard et al., and Torrubiella Boud. within Hypocreales. Akanthomyces neoaraneogenum (W.H. Chen, Y.F. Han, J.D. Liang, Z.Q. Liang & D.C. Jin) W.H. Chen, Y.F. Han & Z.Q. Liang, comb. nov. is also proposed here. Among the genera, Gibellula, Hevansia, Torrubiella, and Akanthomyces are exclusively or dominantly spider pathogens. Gibellula pulchra, G. leiopus, P. atypicola, A. aranearum, and T. aranicida are some of the cosmopolitan spider-pathogenic fungi. A total of twenty spider families and two harvestman families are known to be parasitized by hypocrealean fungi. Spider-pathogenic fungi are known from diverse areas of Europe, and Central and South America, but are only known from limited parts in Asia and Africa. However, east and southeast Asia shows the highest richness of spider-pathogenic fungi. Among three entomogenous families within Hypocreales, we show that the majority of the spider pathogens are distributed in Cordycipitaceae while a few in Ophiocordycipitaceae, but none in the family Clavicipitaceae. Through this review, we show that spiders constitute one of the major host groups of arthropod-associated fungi and hope a continuous interest will be generated to utilize such fungal resources through in vitro growth and extraction of useful bio-active secondary metabolites (extrolites).

Keywords

Arachnids Araneogenous fungi Arthropod-pathogenic fungi Fungal resource New combination 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Biodiversity Heritage Library is kindly acknowledged for reuse of Figs. 1 and 6 (left) (contributed by University Library, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign), Figs. 3, 9, and 10 (contributed by New York Botanical Garden, LuEsther T. Mertz Library), Fig. 4 (contributed by Smithsonian Libraries), Fig. 5 (left) (contributed by NCSU Libraries), Fig. 6 (right) (contributed by MBLWHOI Library), and Figs. 7 and 8 (left) (contributed by Missouri Botanical Garden, Peter H. Raven Library) with due acknowledgement to the contributing institutes. David Minter (Cyberliber) (Fig. 2), Journal of Japanese Botany (Fig. 5, right) and Nerthus and DigiZeitschriften (Fig. 8, right) are also kindly acknowledged for permission to use the figures. Two anonymous reviewers are kindly thanked for insightful comments and suggestions.

Funding

This research was supported by the Bio-industry Technology Development Program (316025-05) of IPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) of Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea.

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Copyright information

© German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Translational Research Division, Biomedical Institute of Mycological Resource, International St. Mary’s Hospital and College of MedicineCatholic Kwandong UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPrague 2Czech Republic
  3. 3.Environmental ScienceIshikawa Prefectural UniversityNonoichiJapan
  4. 4.Mushtech Cordyceps InstituteHoengseong-gunRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Microbiology, College of MedicineCatholic Kwandong UniversityGangneungRepublic of Korea

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