Incorporating prior shape knowledge via data-driven loss model to improve 3D liver segmentation in deep CNNs
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Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have obtained enormous success in liver segmentation. However, there are several challenges, including low-contrast images, and large variations in the shape, and appearance of the liver. Incorporating prior knowledge in deep CNN models improves their performance and generalization.
A convolutional denoising auto-encoder is utilized to learn global information about 3D liver shapes in a low-dimensional latent space. Then, the deep data-driven knowledge is used to define a loss function and combine it with the Dice loss in the main segmentation model. The resultant hybrid model would be forced to learn the global shape information as prior knowledge, while it tries to produce accurate results and increase the Dice score.
The proposed training strategy improved the performance of the 3D U-Net model and reached the Dice score of 97.62% on the Sliver07-I liver dataset, which is competitive to the state-of-the-art automatic segmentation methods. The proposed algorithm enhanced the generalization and robustness of the hybrid model and outperformed the 3D U-Net model in the prediction of unseen images.
The results indicate that the incorporation of prior shape knowledge enhances liver segmentation tasks in deep CNN models. The proposed method improves the generalization and robustness of the hybrid model due to the abstract features provided by the data-driven loss model.
KeywordsDeep learning Convolutional neural network 3D liver segmentation Prior knowledge
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
We further confirm that any aspect of the work covered in this manuscript that has involved either experimental animals or human patients has been conducted with the ethical approval of all relevant bodies and that such approvals are acknowledged within the manuscript.
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