Gain determination of feedback force for an ultrasound scanning robot using genetic algorithm

  • Yeoun-Jae Kim
  • Chang-Kyu Park
  • Kwang Gi KimEmail author
Original Article



The remote medical diagnosis system (RMDS) is for providing medical diagnosis to the patients located in remote sites. To apply to RMDS and medical automation, many master–slave type ultrasound scanning robots are being developed and researched. One of the important research issue of the master–slave type ultrasound scanning robot is to determine the gains of the feedback force. Therefore, in this study, we suggest a gain determination method of feedback force for a master–slave type ultrasound thyroid scanning robot using a genetic algorithm.


A master–slave type ultrasound thyroid scanning robot (NCCMSU) was constructed, and the optimal y and z direction feedback force gains were calculated for NCCMSU with genetic algorithm. The Hunt–Crossley model is used to model the elastic behavior of the thyroid phantom and the thyroid scanning procedure is embedded in genetic algorithm by modeling the procedure mathematically. The genetic algorithm solves the average feedback force–overall procedure time optimization problem to seek optimal y, z direction feedback gains candidates.


The rating results show that although there are some deviations among the subjective ratings, the feedback force with the determined gain setting is within the appropriate range. By analyzing the subjective rating test, the optimal y, z direction feedback force gains were determined. The optimal gains were verified by thyroid phantom scanning test and the scanned ultrasound image analysis.


With the proposed method, the y, z direction optimal feedback force gains of the master–slave type ultrasound scanning robots can be determined. The proposed methods were verified by thyroid phantom scanning test.


Ultrasound scanning robot Master–slave system Genetic algorithm (GA) Feedback force gain Thyroid scanning procedure 



This research was supported by the National Cancer Center NCC1610050-1.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© CARS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering Branch, Division of Precision Medicine and Cancer InformaticsNational Cancer CenterGoyang-siKorea
  2. 2.Department of Ship and OceanVision University of JeonjuJeonjuKorea
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gil Medical Center, School of MedicineGachon UniversityIncheonKorea

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