Advertisement

Reconstruction and positional accuracy of 3D ultrasound on vertebral phantoms for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis spinal surgery

  • Andrew Chan
  • Eric Parent
  • Edmond Lou
Original Article
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Determine the positional, rotational and reconstruction accuracy of a 3D ultrasound system to be used for image registration in navigation surgery.

Methods

A custom 3D ultrasound for spinal surgery image registration was developed using Optitrack Prime 13-W motion capture cameras and a SonixTablet Ultrasound System. Temporal and spatial calibration was completed to account for time latencies between the two systems and to ensure accurate motion tracking of the ultrasound transducer. A mock operating room capture volume with a pegboard grid was set up to allow phantoms to be placed at a variety of predetermined positions to validate accuracy measurements. Five custom-designed ultrasound phantoms were 3D printed to allow for a range of linear and angular dimensions to be measured when placed on the pegboard.

Results

Temporal and spatial calibration was completed with measurement repeatabilities of 0.2 mm and 0.5° after calibration. The mean positional accuracy was within 0.4 mm, with all values within 0.5 mm within the critical surgical regions and 96% of values within 1 mm within the full capture volume. All orientation values were within 1.5°. Reconstruction accuracy was within 0.6 mm and 0.9° for geometrically shaped phantoms and 0.5 and 1.9° for vertebrae-mimicking phantoms.

Conclusions

The accuracy of the developed 3D ultrasound system meets the 1 mm and 5° requirements of spinal surgery from this study. Further repeatability studies and evaluation on vertebrae are needed to validate the system for surgical use.

Keywords

Image guidance 3D ultrasound Spinal surgery Scoliosis Navigation 

Abbreviations

3D

Three-dimensional

AIS

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Alberta Spine Foundation. The first author of this research was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and Alberta Innovates: Technology Futures.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

No individual patients were included in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Hattori T, Sakaura H, Iwasaki M, Nagamoto Y, Yoshikawa H, Sugamoto K (2011) In vivo three-dimensional segmental analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J Off Publ Eur Spine Soc Eur Spinal Deform Soc Eur Sect Cerv Spine Res Soc 20:1745–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Konieczny MR, Senyurt H, Krauspe R (2013) Epidemiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Child Orthop 7:3–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Richards BS, Bernstein RM, D’Amato CR, Thompson GH (2005) Standardization of criteria for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis brace studies: SRS Committee on bracing and nonoperative management. Spine 30:2068–2075 (discussion 2076–2077) CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Basques BA, Lukasiewicz AM, Samuel AM, Webb ML, Bohl DD, Smith BG, Grauer JN (2017) Which pediatric orthopaedic procedures have the greatest risk of adverse outcomes? J Pediatr Orthop 37:429–434.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000683 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maruyama T, Takeshita K (2008) Surgical treatment of scoliosis: a review of techniques currently applied. Scoliosis 3:6.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-7161-3-6 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cuartas E, Rasouli A, O’Brien M, Shufflebarger HL (2009) Use of all-pedicle-screw constructs in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 17:550–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coe JD, Arlet V, Donaldson W, Berven S, Hanson DS, Mudiyam R, Perra JH, Shaffrey CI (2006) Complications in spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the new millennium. A report of the Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee. Spine 31:345–349.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000197188.76369.13 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kosmopoulos V, Schizas C (2007) Pedicle screw placement accuracy: a meta-analysis. Spine 32:E111–E120.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000254048.79024.8b CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reames DL, Smith JS, Fu K-MG, Polly DW, Ames CP, Berven SH, Perra JH, Glassman SD, McCarthy RE, Knapp RD, Heary R, Shaffrey CI, Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality Committee (2011) Complications in the surgical treatment of 19,360 cases of pediatric scoliosis: a review of the scoliosis research society morbidity and mortality database. Spine 36:1484–1491.  https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181f3a326 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zindrick MR, Knight GW, Sartori MJ, Carnevale TJ, Patwardhan AG, Lorenz MA (2000) Pedicle morphology of the immature thoracolumbar spine. Spine 25:2726–2735CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rampersaud YR, Simon DA, Foley KT (2001) Accuracy requirements for image-guided spinal pedicle screw placement. Spine 26:352–359.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200102150-0001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chan A, Parent E, Narvacan K, San C, Lou E (2017) Intraoperative image guidance compared with free-hand methods in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis posterior spinal surgery: a systematic review on screw-related complications and breach rates. Spine J 17:1215–1229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2017.04.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Puvanesarajah V, Liauw JA, Lo S, Lina IA, Witham TF (2014) Techniques and accuracy of thoracolumbar pedicle screw placement. World J Orthop 5:112–123.  https://doi.org/10.5312/wjo.v5.i2.112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takahashi J, Hirabayashi H, Hashidate H, Ogihara N, Kato H (2010) Accuracy of multilevel registration in image-guided pedicle screw insertion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 35:347–352.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181b77f0a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walker CT, Turner JD (2015) Radiation exposure in scoliosis surgery: freehand technique versus image guidance. World Neurosurg 83:282–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2015.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ul Haque M, Shufflebarger HL, O’Brien M, Macagno A (2006) Radiation exposure during pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: is fluoroscopy safe? Spine 31:2516–2520.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000238675.91612.2f CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brenner DJ (2002) Estimating cancer risks from pediatric CT: going from the qualitative to the quantitative. Pediatr Radiol 32:228–231.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-002-0671-1 (discussion 242–244) CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pearce MS, Salotti JA, Little MP, McHugh K, Lee C, Kim KP, Howe NL, Ronckers CM, Rajaraman P, Craft AW, Parker L, de González AB (2012) Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 380:499–505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60815-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frush DP, Applegate K (2004) Computed tomography and radiation: understanding the issues. J Am Coll Radiol 1:113–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2003.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nelson EM, Monazzam SM, Kim KD, Seibert JA, Klineberg EO (2014) Intraoperative fluoroscopy, portable X-ray, and CT: patient and operating room personnel radiation exposure in spinal surgery. Spine J Off J N Am Spine Soc 14:2985–2991.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2014.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mujagić M, Ginsberg HJ, Cobbold RSC (2008) Development of a method for ultrasound-guided placement of pedicle screws. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 55:1267–1276.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2008.789 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yan CXB, Goulet B, Pelletier J, Chen SJ-S, Tampieri D, Collins DL (2011) Towards accurate, robust and practical ultrasound-CT registration of vertebrae for image-guided spine surgery. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 6:523–537.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-010-0536-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yan CXB, Goulet B, Tampieri D, Collins DL (2012) Ultrasound-CT registration of vertebrae without reconstruction. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 7:901–909.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-012-0771-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mercier L, Langø T, Lindseth F, Collins DL (2005) A review of calibration techniques for freehand 3-D ultrasound systems. Ultrasound Med Biol 31:449–471.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2004.11.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang Q, Zeng Z (2017) A review on real-time 3D ultrasound imaging technology. BioMed Res Int.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6027029 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kindratenko VV (2000) A survey of electromagnetic position tracker calibration techniques. Virtual Real 5:169–182.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01409422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chan A, Aguillon J, Hill D, Lou E (2017) Precision and accuracy of consumer-grade motion tracking system for pedicle screw placement in pediatric spinal fusion surgery. Med Eng Phys 46:33–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2017.05.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moore TR (2011) The role of amniotic fluid assessment in evaluating fetal well-being. Clin Perinatol 38:33–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2010.12.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Unsgaard G, Rygh OM, Selbekk T, Müller TB, Kolstad F, Lindseth F, Hernes TAN (2006) Intra-operative 3D ultrasound in neurosurgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 148:235–253.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-005-0688-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zheng R, Chan ACY, Chen W, Hill DL, Le LH, Hedden D, Moreau M, Mahood J, Southon S, Lou E (2015) Intra- and inter-rater reliability of coronal curvature measurement for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using ultrasonic imaging method: a pilot study. Spine Deform 3:151–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2014.08.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen Z, Wu B, Zhai X, Bai Y, Zhu X, Luo B, Chen X, Li C, Yang M, Xu K, Liu C, Wang C, Zhao Y, Wei X, Chen K, Yang W, Ta D, Li M (2015) Basic study for ultrasound-based navigation for pedicle screw insertion using transmission and backscattered methods. PLoS ONE 10:e0122392.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122392 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen TK, Abolmaesumi P, Thurston AD, Ellis RE (2006) Automated 3D freehand ultrasound calibration with real-time accuracy control. In: MICCAI international conference medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention, vol 9, pp 899–906Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    De Lorenzo D, Vaccarella A, Khreis G, Moennich H, Ferrigno G, De Momi E (2011) Accurate calibration method for 3D freehand ultrasound probe using virtual plane. Med Phys 38:6710–6720.  https://doi.org/10.1118/1.3663674 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Narouze SN (ed) (2011) Atlas of ultrasound-guided procedures in interventional pain management [electronic resource]. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Solberg OV, Lindseth F, Torp H, Blake RE, Nagelhus Hernes TA (2007) Freehand 3D ultrasound reconstruction algorithms: a review. Ultrasound Med Biol 33:991–1009.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2007.02.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barratt DC, Davies AH, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Humphries KN (2001) Optimisation and evaluation of an electromagnetic tracking device for high-accuracy three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the carotid arteries. Ultrasound Med Biol 27:957–968CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Treece GM, Gee AH, Prager RW, Cash CJC, Berman LH (2003) High-definition freehand 3-D ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 29:529–546CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hsu P-W, Prager RW, Gee AH, Treece GM (2009) Freehand 3D ultrasound calibration: a review. In: Sensen CW, Hallgrímsson B (eds) Advanced imaging in biology and medicine. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koivukangas T, Katisko JP, Koivukangas JP (2013) Technical accuracy of optical and the electromagnetic tracking systems. SpringerPlus.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-90 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang P-F, Sanno M, Brüggemann G-P, Rittweger J (2012) Evaluation of the performance of a motion capture system for small displacement recording and a discussion for its application potential in bone deformation in vivo measurements. Proc Inst Mech Eng 226:838–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lim JS (1990) Two-dimensional signal and image processing. Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Soille P (2003) Morphological image analysis: principles and applications, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Poulsen C, Pedersen PC, Szabo TL (2005) An optical registration method for 3D ultrasound freehand scanning. In: IEEE ultrasonics symposium, 2005, pp 1236–1240Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ioannou C, Sarris I, Yaqub MK, Noble JA, Javaid MK, Papageorghiou AT (2011) Surface area measurement using rendered three-dimensional ultrasound imaging: an in vitro phantom study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Off J Int Soc Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 38:445–449.  https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.8984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zenbutsu S, Igarashi T, Nakamura R, Nakaguchi T, Yamaguchi T (2013) 3D ultrasound assisted laparoscopic liver surgery by visualization of blood vessels. In: 2013 IEEE international ultrasonics symposium (IUS), pp 840–843Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Penney GP, Barratt DC, Chan CSK, Slomczykowski M, Carter TJ, Edwards PJ, Hawkes DJ (2006) Cadaver validation of intensity-based ultrasound to CT registration. Med Image Anal 10:385–395.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2006.01.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© CARS 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations