La radiologia medica

, Volume 124, Issue 8, pp 777–782 | Cite as

Applying radiation protection and safety in radiotherapy

  • Stefano Maria Magrini
  • Nadia Pasinetti
  • Liliana Belgioia
  • Luca TriggianiEmail author
  • Mario Levis
  • Umberto Ricardi
  • Renzo Corvò


Radiotherapy is one of the primary treatment options in cancer management. Modern radiotherapy includes complex processes requiring many different kinds of expertise. Among them, knowledge and skills are needed in clinical oncology, radiobiology, radiotherapy planning and simulation, dose measurement and calculation, radiation safety and medical physics. Radiation oncologists should assume the full and final responsibility for treatment, follow-up and supportive care of the patient. For all these activities, radiation oncologist should coordinate and collaborate with a team including different professionals: nurses, radiographers (RTT), clinical engineers, information system experts, taking advantage in particular of the dosimetry expertise of the medical physicist. Radiation therapy is widely recognized to be one of the safest areas of modern medicine, and errors are very rare. However, radiation protection recommendations developed at national level should comply with the EURATOM Directive 2013/59. This paper describes several contemporary and emerging concerns related to radioprotection in radiation therapy including quality and safety in external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, foetal dose, secondary malignancies, and the safety issues related to the new techniques and treatment strategies.


Radioprotection Radiotherapy Radiation exposure Radiation risk management 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Consent for publication

The authors agree with the content of the article and give consensus for publication.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Medical Radiology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Maria Magrini
    • 1
  • Nadia Pasinetti
    • 2
  • Liliana Belgioia
    • 3
  • Luca Triggiani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mario Levis
    • 4
  • Umberto Ricardi
    • 4
  • Renzo Corvò
    • 3
  1. 1.Radiation Oncology DepartmentBrescia UniversityBresciaItaly
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology ServiceASST ValcamonicaEsineItaly
  3. 3.Radiation Oncology Department, San Martino Teaching HospitalGenova University (DISSAL)GenoaItaly
  4. 4.Department of OncologyUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

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