The new lens dose limit: implication for occupational radiation protection

  • Samantha Cornacchia
  • Rosangela Errico
  • Luciana La Tegola
  • Arcangela Maldera
  • Giovanni Simeone
  • Vincenzo Fusco
  • Artor Niccoli-Asabella
  • Giuseppe Rubini
  • Giuseppe GuglielmiEmail author


Aim and objectives

The aim of this article was to explore the implications of the new Euratom dose limit for occupational radiation protection in the context of medical occupational radiation exposures. The European Directive 2013/59/Euratom takes into account the new recommendations on reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye for planned occupational exposures released in 2012 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 118).

Materials and methods

Different dose-monitoring procedures and devices were considered. Occupational eye lens doses reported by previous studies were analyzed, mainly considering workers involved in interventional procedures with X-rays. The current status of eye lens radiation protection and the main methods for dose reduction were investigated.


The analysis showed that the workers, potentially exceeding the new limit, are clinical staff performing interventional procedures with a relatively high X-ray dose. Regarding radiological protection issues, the considered literature reports that the proper use of personal protective equipment may reduce the eye lens absorbed dose.


The evaluation of the occupational eye lens dose is essential to establish which method of personal dose monitoring should be preferred. Furthermore, education and training about the right use of personal protective equipment are important for medical staff working with ionizing radiation.


Eye lens dose Radiation protection Occupational dose Dose limit Dose reduction European Directive 2013/59 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Directive C (2013) 59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom. Off J Eur Union 17(1):2014Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stewart FA, Akleyev AV, Hauer-Jensen M, Hendry JH, Kleiman NJ, MacVittie TJ, Aleman BM, Edgar AB, Mabuchi K, Muirhead CR, Shore RE, Wallace WH (2012) ICRP statement on tissue reactions/early and late effects of radiation in normal tissues and organs—threshold doses for tissue reactions in a radiation protection context. ICRP 118:1–322Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vanhavere F, Carinou E, Domienik J et al (2011) Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional radiology and cardiology: final results of the ORAMED project. Radiat Meas 46:1243–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heusch P, Kröpil P, Buchbender C, Aissa J, Lanzman RS, Heusner TA, Fürst G (2014) Radiation exposure of the radiologist’s eye lens during CT-guided interventions. Acta Radiol 55(1):86–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    The Ionizing Radiations Regulations 2017.
  6. 6.
    Work with ionising radiation. Ionising Radiations Regulations 2017. Approved Code of Practice and guidance 2017.
  7. 7.
    European platform for occupational radiation exposure.
  8. 8.
    Le service public de la diffusion du droit website.
  9. 9.
    Décret n° 2018-438 du 4 juin 2018 relatif à la protection contre les risques dus aux rayonnements ionisants auxquels sont soumis certains travailleurs. J Off Répub cFr (JORF), 2018-06-05Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 17 marzo 1995, n. 230. (GU Serie Generale n.136 del 13-06-1995 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 74)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    RP COP015—Classified radiation workers. Health and Safety.
  12. 12.
    ICRP (2007). The 2007 Reccomendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103, Ann. ICRP 37(2–4)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ICRP (2013). Statement on tissue reactions and early and late effects of radiation in normal tissues and organs—threshold doses for tissue reactions in a radiation protection context. ICRP Publication 118, ICRP 41(1/2)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radcard TLD Dosimeters website.
  15. 15.
    Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûretè Nucléaire.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Tecnology (KIT). Research to business.
  18. 18.
    ALATUJI Products, solution, services.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    IAEA TECDOC 1731 (2013). Implications for occupational radiation protection of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye.
  21. 21.
    IRPA TG 2017. IRPA guidance on implementation of eye dose monitoring and eye protection of workers.
  22. 22.
    Damen, M, et al. (2018) Guidelines for radiation protection and dosimetry of the eye lens, Report 31 of the Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry, May 2018.
  23. 23.
    Martin CJ (2016) Eye lens dosimetry for fluoroscopically guided clinical procedures: practical approaches to protection and dose monitoring. Radiat Prot Dosim 169(1–4):286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heidbuchel H, Wittkampf FH, Vano E, Ernst S, Schilling R, Picano E, Piorkowski C (2014) Practical ways to reduce radiation dose for patients and staff during device implantations and electrophysiological procedures. Europace 16(7):946–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Indicazioni operative per l’ottimizzazione della radioprotezione delle procedure di radiologia interventistica. Rapporti Istisan 15/41. ISSN:1123-3117(cartaceo)- 2384–8936 (online)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burns S, Thornton R, Dauer LT, Quinn B, Miodownik D, Hak DJ (2013) Leaded eyeglasses substantially reduce radiation exposure of the surgeon’s eyes during acquisition of typical fluoroscopic views of the hip and pelvis. JBJS 95(14):1307–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chiriotti S, Ginjaume M, Vano E, Sanchez R, Fernandez JM, Duch MA, Sempau J (2011) Performance of several active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology and cardiology. Radiat Meas 46(11):1266–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sharma D, Ramsewak A, Manoharan G, Spence MS (2016) Efficacy of RADPAD® protection drape in reducing radiation exposure to the primary operator during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Minerva Cardioangiol 64(1):41–46Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vano E, Sanchez RM, Fernandez JM (2015) Estimation of staff lens doses during interventional procedures: comparing cardiology, neuroradiology and interventional radiology. Radiat Prot Dosim 165(1–4):279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tavares JB, Sacadura-Leite E, Matoso T, Neto LL, Biscoito L, Campos J, Sousa-Uva A (2016) The importance of protection glasses during neuroangiographies: a study on radiation exposure at the lens of the primary operator. Interv Neuroradiol 22(3):368–371CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krisanachinda A, Srimahachota S, Matsubara K (2017) The current status of eye lens dose measurement in interventional cardiology personnel in Thailand. Radiol Phys Technol 10(2):142–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sciahbasi A, Romagnoli E, Burzotta F, Trani C, Sarandrea A, Summaria F, Mongiardo R (2011) Transradial approach (left versus right) and procedural times during percutaneous coronary procedures: TALENT study. Am Heart J 161(1):172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Principi S, Delgado Soler C, Ginjaume M, Beltran Vilagrasa M, Rovira Escutia JJ, Duch MA (2015) Eye lens dose in interventional cardiology. Radiat Prot Dosim 165(1–4):289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Omar A, Kadesjö N, Palmgren C, Marteinsdottir M, Segerdahl T, Fransson A (2017) Assessment of the occupational eye lens dose for clinical staff in interventional radiology, cardiology and neuroradiology. J Radiol Prot 37(1):145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Medical Radiology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ASL BT, Medical PhysicsBarlettaItaly
  2. 2.University of Foggia, RadiologyFoggiaItaly
  3. 3.IRCCS–CROB, Radiation OncologyRionero in VultureItaly
  4. 4.Nuclear Medicine UnitUniversity of Bari Aldo MoroBariItaly

Personalised recommendations