Position paper on magnetic resonance imaging protocols in the musculoskeletal system (excluding the spine) by the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a pivotal radiological examination in clinical practice, being widely applied for musculoskeletal examinations. In this setting, strict adherence to standardized protocol is crucial to increase diagnostic performance and minimize variability among different diagnostic centres and readers. The aim of this paper is to provide standardized technical recommendations for musculoskeletal MRI scans proposed by the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology. These recommendations are designed to give a uniform application of MRI protocols over the national territory, to increase reproducibility and improve diagnostic performance.
KeywordsMagnetic resonance imaging Musculoskeletal Position paper Protocol
Field of view
Intermediate. They are sequences with long time of repetition (TR) and intermediate time of echo (TE) halfway between PD-weighted sequences (TE = 10–20 ms) and T2-weighted sequences (TE = 80–100 ms). The advantage of these sequences is that TE is short enough to maintain optimal anatomic detail (as PD-weighted sequences) and high sensitivity to fluid (as T2-weighted sequences). As a guidance, the appropriate TE is about 40–60 ms
All authors are Members of the College of Musculoskeletal Radiology of the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology. Antonio Barile and Enzo Silvestri are the president-elect and present chair of the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology, respectively. Alberto Bellelli, Roberto Caudana, Carlo Faletti, Eugenio Genovese, Carlo Masciocchi and Vincenzo Spina are past chairs of the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Institutional review board approval and informed consent for this paper were not needed.
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