There are more anatomical variants in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in our philosophy: the precaval left renal artery
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To describe the CT findings in eight patients with left-sided inferior vena cava (IVC) in whom the left renal artery presented a precaval course (pLRA).
Materials and methods
We searched the teaching files of six radiology departments for patients with pLRAs. Eight patients were found, and the available imaging studies and clinical histories were reviewed. Associated vascular and renal anomalies were noted.
No patient had been examined for problems related to the vascular anomaly found. Four had a double IVC and two a solitary left IVC; in all, the left-sided IVCs had hemiazygos continuation. One patient had situs viscerum inversus. In one case, there was a left kidney in left iliac fossa.
Although rare and probably overlooked, a pLRAs can be encountered in patients with situs viscerum inversus or presenting a left-sided IVC with hemiazygos continuation. These vessels can cause technical problems during surgery at the left renal hilum and should be specifically searched for in patients with vascular anomalies.
KeywordsRenal vessels Anomalies IVC Hemiazygos continuation of IVC Left-sided precaval renal artery
This study has received no funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
This study was approved, and the need for informed consent was waived by the ethics committee of the institution of the corresponding author (335REG2014).
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