Machine learning-based radiomic models to predict intensity-modulated radiation therapy response, Gleason score and stage in prostate cancer

  • Hamid Abdollahi
  • Bahram Mofid
  • Isaac Shiri
  • Abolfazl Razzaghdoust
  • Afshin Saadipoor
  • Arash Mahdavi
  • Hassan Maleki Galandooz
  • Seied Rabi MahdaviEmail author



To develop different radiomic models based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomic features and machine learning methods to predict early intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) response, Gleason scores (GS) and prostate cancer (Pca) stages.


Thirty-three Pca patients were included. All patients underwent pre- and post-IMRT T2-weighted (T2 W) and apparent diffusing coefficient (ADC) MRI. IMRT response was calculated in terms of changes in the ADC value, and patients were divided as responders and non-responders. A wide range of radiomic features from different feature sets were extracted from all T2 W and ADC images. Univariate radiomic analysis was performed to find highly correlated radiomic features with IMRT response, and a paired t test was used to find significant features between responders and non-responders. To find high predictive radiomic models, tenfold cross-validation as the criterion for feature selection and classification was applied on the pre-, post- and delta IMRT radiomic features, and area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics was calculated as model performance value.


Of 33 patients, 15 patients (45%) were found as responders. Univariate analysis showed 20 highly correlated radiomic features with IMRT response (20 ADC and 20 T2). Two and fifteen T2 and ADC radiomic features were found as significant (P-value ≤ 0.05) features between responders and non-responders, respectively. Several cross-combined predictive radiomic models were obtained, and post-T2 radiomic models were found as high predictive models (AUC 0.632) followed by pre-ADC (AUC 0.626) and pre-T2 (AUC 0.61). For GS prediction, T2 W radiomic models were found as more predictive (mean AUC 0.739) rather than ADC models (mean AUC 0.70), while for stage prediction, ADC models had higher prediction performance (mean AUC 0.675).


Radiomic models developed by MR image features and machine learning approaches are noninvasive and easy methods for personalized prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy.


Radiomics Prostate cancer MRI IMRT Prediction 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11547_2018_966_MOESM1_ESM.doc (145 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 145 kb)


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Medical Radiology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Physics, School of MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Shohada-e-Tajrish Medical CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Biomedical and Health Informatics, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Research Center for Molecular and Cellular ImagingTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Student Research CommitteeShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Radiology, Modarres HospitalShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  7. 7.Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Image Processing and Distributed System LabShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  8. 8.Radiation Biology Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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