Advertisement

TechTrends

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Using the Community of Inquiry Framework to Understand Students’ Learning Experience in Online Undergraduate Business Courses

  • Jinhee ChooEmail author
  • Nesrin Bakir
  • Norma I. Scagnoli
  • Boreum Ju
  • Xiaoping Tong
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study that explored undergraduate students’ perceptions of cognitive, social, and teaching presences in online business courses and their relationship to students’ course satisfaction in addition to demographic variables. Student engagement has proven to be one of the main reasons for student retention and satisfaction in online courses and the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer promised to provide clear structure to identify student engagement. A total of 223 business undergraduate students participated in the online survey adapted from the CoI survey (Garrison et al., The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105, 2000) with additional demographic variables. Results indicated that teaching presence and cognitive presence of the CoI framework has a significant impact on the course rate of online undergraduate business courses confirmed by the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). A moderation effect of gender on the relationship between age and course rate was also found.

Keywords

Community of Inquiry Online business education Teaching presence Cognitive presence Course satisfaction Age Gender 

Abbreviations

CoI

community of inquiry

TP

teaching presence

CP

cognitive presence

SP

social presence

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

We have no potential conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

This study is exempted from ethical approval by ethics committee, The Institutional Review Board Office at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Abramovich, S., Schunn, C., & Higashi, R. M. (2013). Are badges useful in education? It depends upon the type of badge and expertise of the learner. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61, 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. (2011). Assessing metacognition in an online community of inquiry. The Internet and Higher Education, 23(2), 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2015). Grade change: Tracking online education in the United States. Babson Park, MA: Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog Research Group. Retrieved from http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/gradechange.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  4. Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2017). Digital learning compass: Distance education enrollment report 2017. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/digtiallearningcompassenrollment2017.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  5. Alman, S. W., Frey, B. A., & Tomer, C. (2012). Social and cognitive presence as factors in learning and student retention: An investigation of the cohort model in an iSchool setting. Journal of Education for Library & Information Science, 53(4), 290–302.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2), 1–17.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, A., Huttenlocher, D., Kleinberg, J., & Leskovec, J. (2013). Steering user behavior with badges. Proceedings of World Wide Web 2013 Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Retrieved from http://cs.stanford.edu/people/jure/pubs/badges-www13.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  8. Antin, J., & Churchill, E. (2011, May). Badges in social media: A social psychological perspective. CHI Workshop on Gamification. Vancouver, BC, Canada.Google Scholar
  9. Arbaugh, J. B. (2000). An exploratory study of the effects of gender on student learning and class participation in an internet-based MBA course. Management Learning, 31(4), 503–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arbaugh, J. B. (2008). Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2) Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/490. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  11. Arbaugh, J. B., Cleveland-Innes, M., Diaz, S. R., Garrison, D. R., Ice, P., Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. P. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the community of inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. The Internet and Higher Education, 11(3–4), 133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Armellini, A., & De Stefani, M. (2016). Social presence in the 21st century: An adjustment to the community of inquiry framework. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(6), 1202–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barczyk, C. C., Hixon, E., Buckenmeyer, J., & Ralston-Berg, P. (2017). The effect of age and employment on students’ perceptions of online course quality. American Journal of Distance Education, 31(3), 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bollen, K. A. (2002). Latent variables in psychology and the social sciences. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 605–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boston, W., Diaz, S., Gibson, A., Ice, P., Richardson, J., & Swan, K. (2009). An exploration of relationship between indicators of the Community of Inquiry framework and retention in online programs. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(3), 67–83.Google Scholar
  16. Bulu, S. T. (2012). Place presence, social presence, co-presence, and satisfaction in virtual worlds. Computers & Education, 58(1), 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bury, M. (2014). Community of inquiry model [Online image]. Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Community_of_inquiry_model.svg. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  18. Catron, S. D. (2012). An investigation of online educational quality in professional and continuing education using the Community of Inquiry framework. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (1023131849).Google Scholar
  19. Cho, M. H., & Jonassen, D. H. (2009). The development of the human interaction dimension of self-regulated learning questionnaire in asynchronous online learning environments. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 29(1), 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cho, M. H., Shen, D., & Laffey, J. (2010). The role of metacognitive self-regulation (MSR) on social presence and sense of community in online learning environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 21(3), 297–316.Google Scholar
  21. Clinefelter, D. L., & Aslanian, C. B. (2014). Online college students 2014: Comprehensive data on demands and preferences. Louisville: The Learning House, Inc..Google Scholar
  22. Cobb, S. C. (2011). Social presence, satisfaction, and perceived learning of RN-to-BSN students in web-based nursing courses. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(2), 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dennen, V. P. (2004). Cognitive apprenticeship in educational practice: Research on scaffolding, modeling, mentoring, and coaching as instructional strategies. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology: A project of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 813–828). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Denny, P. (2013). The effect of virtual achievements on student engagement. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Paris, France, (series) – CHI’, 13, 763–772.Google Scholar
  25. Dunlap, J., & Lowenthal, P. (2009). Tweeting the night away: Using twitter to enhance social presence. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 129–135.Google Scholar
  26. Espasa, A., & Meneses, J. (2010). Analysing feedback processes in an online teaching and learning environment: An exploratory study. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 59(3), 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Estelami, H. (2012). An exploratory study of the drivers of student satisfaction and learning experience in hybrid-online and purely online marketing courses. Marketing Education Review, 22(2), 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Garrison, D. (2017). E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Garrison, D., & Akyol, Z. (2013). The Community of Inquiry theoretical framework. In M. Moore (Ed.), Introducing the 2013 handbook of distance education (3rd ed., pp. 104–120). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Garrison, D., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garrison, D., & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating cognitive presence in online learning: Interaction is not enough. The American Journal of Distance Education, 19(3), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garrison, D., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105.Google Scholar
  33. Garrison, D., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garrison, D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T. (2010). Exploring causal relationships among teaching, cognitive and socialpresence: Student perceptions of the community of inquiry framework. Internet and Higher Education, 13, 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Greyling, F. C., & Wentzel, A. (2007). Humanising education through technology: Creating social presence in large classes. South African Journal of Higher Education, 21(4), 654–667.Google Scholar
  36. Horzum, M. B. (2015). Online learning students’ perceptions of the community of inquiry based on learning outcomes and demographic variables. Croatian Journal of Education, 17(2), 535–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hostetter, C., & Busch, M. (2006). Measuring up online: The relationship between social presence and student learning satisfaction. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  38. Jorge, I. (2010). Social presence and cognitive presence in in online training program for teachers of Portuguese. IODL & ICEM 2010 Joint Conference and Media Days. Paper presented at the 2010 IODL & ICEM Joint Conference, Eskisehir, Turkey.Google Scholar
  39. Kanuka, H., & Garrison, D. R. (2004). Cognitive presence in online learning. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 15(2), 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kanuka, H., & Jugdev, K. (2006). Distance education MBA students: An investigation into the use of an orientation course to address academic and social integration issues. Open Learning, 21(2), 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ke, F. (2010). Examining online teaching, cognitive, and social presence for adult students. Computers & Education, 55(2), 808–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Layne, M., & Ice, P. (2014). Merging the best of both worlds: Introducing CoI-TLP model. In B. Sutton & A. Basiel (Eds.), Teaching and learning online: New models of learning for a connected world (pp. 3–20). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Lear, J. L., Isernhagen, J. C., LaCost, B. A., & King, J. W. (2009). Instructor presence for web-based classes. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 51(2), 86–98.Google Scholar
  44. Lee, Y., & Choi, J. (2011). A review of online course dropout research: Implications for practice and future research. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 593–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee, R., & Faulkner, M. (2011). The roles of extrinsic factors in a community of inquiry model of e-learning. E-Learning and Digital Media, 8(1), 58–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lei, P. W., & Wu, Q. (2007). Introduction to structural equation modeling: Issues and practical considerations. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 26(3), 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Levy, Y. (2007). Comparing dropouts and persistence in e-learning courses. Computers & Education, 48(2), 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu, X., Magjuka, R. J., Bonk, C. J., & Lee, S. (2007). Does sense of community matter? Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8, 9–24.Google Scholar
  49. Mahle, M. (2011). Effects of interactivity on student achievement and motivation in distance education. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 12(3), 207–215.Google Scholar
  50. Mayne, L., & Wu, Q. (2011). Creating and measuring social presence in online graduate nursing courses. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(2), 110–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Menager-Beeley, R. (2001). Student success in web-based distance learning: Measuring motivation to identify at risk students and improve retention in online classes (pp. 1–8). ERIC database. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED466608.pdf. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  52. Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2005). A comparative analysis of online discussion participation protocols. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(2), 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Müller, T. (2008). Persistence of women in online degree-completion programs. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Murphy, E. (2004). Recognizing and promoting collaboration in an online asynchronous discussion. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35(4), 421–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Noteboom, J. T., & Claywell, L. (2010). Student perceptions of cognitive, social, and teaching presence. 26th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning. Paper presented at the 2010 Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, Madison, WI., USA.Google Scholar
  56. Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relations to students’ perceived learning and satisfaction. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(1), 68–88.Google Scholar
  57. Richardson, J. C., Koehler, A., Besser, E., Caskurlu, S., Lim, J., & Mueller, C. (2015). Conceptualizing and investigating instructor presence in online learning environments. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 16(3), 256–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rovai, A. P., & Baker, J. D. (2005). Gender differences in online learning: Sense of community, perceived learning, and interpersonal interactions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 6(1), 31–44.Google Scholar
  59. Rubin, B., Fernandes, R., & Avgerinou, M. (2013). The effects of technology on the Community of Inquiry and satisfaction with online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 17, 48–57.Google Scholar
  60. Sanders, D. W., & Morrison-Shetlar, A. I. (2002). Student attitudes toward web-enhanced instruction in an introductory biology course. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(3), 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research methods for business students (6th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  62. Shea, P. (2006). A study of students’ sense of learning community in online learning environments. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(1) Retrieved from http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v10n1/v10n1_4shea_member.asp. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  63. Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009a). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster “epistemic engagement” and “cognitive presence” in online education. Computers & Education, 52, 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009b). Measures of quality in online education: An investigation of the community of inquiry model and the net generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 39(4), 339–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shea, P., Fredericksen, E., Pickett, A., Pelz, W., & Swan, K. (2001). Measures of learning effectiveness in the SUNY learning network. In J. Bourne & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Online education (volume 2) learning effectiveness, faculty satisfaction, and cost effectiveness (pp. 7–31). Needham: SCOLE.Google Scholar
  66. Shea, P., Li, C., & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sung, E., & Mayer, R. E. (2012). Five facets of social presence in online distance education. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1738–1747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Swan, K. (2004). Learning effectiveness: What the research tells us. In J. Bourne & J. C. Moore (Eds.), Elements of quality online education: Practice and direction Vol 4 (pp. 13–45). Needham: Sloan Center for Online Education.Google Scholar
  69. Swan, K., Garrison, D. R., & Richardson, J. C. (2009). A constructivist approach to online learning: The Community of Inquiry framework. In C. R. Payne (Ed.), Information technology and constructivism in higher education: Progressive learning frameworks (pp. 43–57). Hershey: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Swan, K., Day, S., Bogle, L. R., & Matthews, D. B. (2014). A collaborative, design-based approach to improving an online program. Internet and Higher Education, 21, 74–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2005). Research in organizations: Foundations and methods of inquiry. San Francisco, CA: Berrett Koehler Publications.Google Scholar
  72. Szeto, E. (2015). Community of Inquiry as an instructional approach: What effects of teaching, social and cognitive presences are there in blended synchronous learning and teaching? Computers & Education, 81, 191–201.Google Scholar
  73. Tinto, V. (2006). Research and practice of student retention: What next? College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 8, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tu, C., & McIsaac, M. (2002). The relationship of social presence and interaction in online classes. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(3), 131–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Valasek, T. (2001). Student persistence in web-based courses: Identifying a profile for success. (pp. 1–19). ERIC. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED466276. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  76. Van de Ven, A. H. (1980). Problem solving, planning, and innovation. Part II. Speculations for theory and practice. Human Relations, 33(11), 757–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wicks, D. A., Craft, B. B., Mason, G. N., Gritter, K., & Bolding, K. (2015). An investigation into the community of inquiry of blended classrooms by a faculty learning community. Internet and Higher Education, 25(C), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2011). Online and hybrid course enrollment and performance in Washington State Community and Technical Colleges (CCRC Working Paper No. 31). New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Publication.asp?UID=872. Accessed 15 Aug 2018.
  79. Zhang, C. (2010). Using virtual world learning environment as a course component in both distance learning and traditional classroom: Implications for technology choice in course delivery. Proceedings of the Southern Association for Information Systems Conference (pp. 196–200). USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinhee Choo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nesrin Bakir
    • 2
  • Norma I. Scagnoli
    • 1
  • Boreum Ju
    • 1
  • Xiaoping Tong
    • 1
  1. 1.College of BusinessUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA
  2. 2.West Texas A&M UniversityCanyonUSA

Personalised recommendations