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Comparing Instructional Event Sequences in Audio Podcasts with Low Versus High User Satisfaction

  • Allan JeongEmail author
Original Paper


According to Gagne, instruction should follow the prescribed nine events of instruction, but that the sequence need not be absolute and that not all events are necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent are the prescribed sequence implemented in practice, and how might variations in event sequences affect learner satisfaction. Using sequential analysis, this study identified patterns in instructional event sequences observed in iTune audio podcasts with low versus high user satisfaction ratings. The analysis revealed that collectively the audio podcasts followed the event sequence prescribed by Gagne. However, the high-rated podcasts were more likely to transition from objectives straight to information presentation (skipping stimulating recall) and from information presentation to practice (skipping guidance). If learners were using the podcasts to support just-in-time learning and were aware that they could return to the podcasts at any time in the future, there was no need to stimulate recall and receive guidance to improve long-term memory and recall. These findings suggest that event sequences should be modified to accommodate different instructional contexts in order to increase learner satisfaction and efficiency. This study and its findings also serve to illustrate ways to apply sequential analysis to conduct further investigations on ways to vary instructional event sequences to optimize both process and learning outcomes.


Events of instruction Audio podcast design 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational Psychology & Learning Systems, Instructional Systems ProgramFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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