Association of Time since Migration from Rural to Urban Slums and Maternal and Child Outcomes: Dhaka (North and South) and Gazipur City Corporations

  • Abdur Razzaque
  • Kimberly ClairEmail author
  • Brian Chin
  • Mohammad Zahirul Islam
  • Mohammad Nahid Mia
  • Razib Chowdhury
  • AHM Golam Mustafa
  • Randall Kuhn


This study analyzes data from a new Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance (UHDSS) in five slums in Dhaka (North and South) and Gazipur City Corporations to examine the relationship between migration status and maternal and child health service utilization. Migration status was determined by duration in urban slums (<= 9.99 years, 10–19.99 years, 20+ years, and urban-born). Compared to those born in the city, migrants were characterized by significant disadvantages in every maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) indicator under study, including antenatal care, facility-based delivery, doctor-assisted delivery, child immunization, caesarean-section delivery, and use of modern contraceptives. We found that the level of service coverage among migrants gradually converged—but did not fully converge—to that of the urban-born with increasing duration in the city. We observed a strong positive association between wealth and total MNCH coverage, with a more modest association with higher levels of schooling attainment. Women who were engaged in market employment were less likely to receive adequate coverage, suggesting a tradeoff between livelihood attainment and mother-and-child health. After controlling for these socioeconomic and neighborhood variations in coverage, the duration gradient was diminished but still significant. In line with existing studies of healthcare access, this study highlights the persistent and widespread burden of unequal access to maternal and child health care facing migrants to slum areas, even relative to the overall disadvantages experienced in informal settlements.


Maternal and child health Rural-urban migration Dhaka Bangladesh 


Funding information

The study was funded by the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Local Government Division, Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives, Embassy of Sweden and Asian Development Bank. icddr,b gratefully acknowledges these donors for their support and commitment to the Centre’s research effort. icddr,b is grateful to the Government of Bangladesh, Canada, Sweden, and the UK for providing core unrestricted support.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Health System and Population Studies DivisionDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Community Health SciencesUniversity of California, Los Angeles, Fielding School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Asian Development BankManilaPhilippines
  4. 4.Embassy of SwedenDhakaBangladesh

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