Advertisement

Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 95, Issue 6, pp 881–887 | Cite as

Contributions of Neighborhood Parks to Physical Activity in High-Poverty Urban Neighborhoods

  • Sujeong Park
  • Bing Han
  • Deborah A. Cohen
  • Kathryn P. Derose
Article

Abstract

Neighborhood parks are important venues for the urban population to do moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in leisure time. Parks can be particularly important for low-income neighborhoods, whose residents suffer from high rates of chronic diseases and may have less access to fee-based fitness exercise facilities. This study assessed the contribution of parks to local populations’ physical activity in 48 high-poverty neighborhoods in the city of Los Angeles, using systematic observation of park use and surveys of park users and residents conducted between 2013 and 2015. We found that parks accounted for approximately 2.1% (between-park SD = 1.4%) of moderate physical activity time and 3.1% (between-park SD = 2.1%) of vigorous physical activity time of the local population, both of which were notably lower than the city-level average previously reported. Parks’ contribution to physical activity was positively associated with park size (β = 0.13, p < 0.0001) and negatively associated with poverty (β = − 0.10, p < 0.0001) and local population density (β = − 0.25, p = 0.005). Parks in high-poverty neighborhoods in Los Angeles are underutilized, and more efforts are needed to fully realize their potential for population health.

Keywords

Parks Physical activity Urban neighborhood Poverty 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by NIH/NHLBI grant R01HL114283. The work however does not represent the opinion of the funding agencies. We are grateful to Dmitry Khodyakov, Michele Abbott, Simon Hollands, Lisa Jonsson, Rouslan Karimov, PhuongGiang Nguyen, and Sara Turner for useful comments.

References

  1. 1.
    Services TFCP. Recommendations to increase physical activity in communities. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Recomm Rep. 2009;58(7):1–29.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen DA, McKenzie TL, Sehgal A, Williamson S, Golinelli D, Lurie N. Contribution of public parks to physical activity. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(3):509–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Han B, Cohen D, McKenzie TL. Quantifying the contribution of neighborhood parks to physical activity. Prev Med. 2013;57(5):483–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Han B, Cohen DA, Derose KP, Marsh T, Williamson S, Raaen L. How much neighborhood parks contribute to local residents’ physical activity in the City of Los Angeles: a meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2014;69:S106–S10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohen D, Han B, Derose KP, et al. Promoting physical activity in high-poverty neighborhood parks: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Soc Sci Med. 2017;186:130–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Verhaak PF, Kerssens JJ, Dekker J, Sorbi MJ, Bensing JM. Prevalence of chronic benign pain disorder among adults: a review of the literature. Pain. 1998;77(3):231–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Drewnowski A, Specter S. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(1):6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vart P, Gansevoort RT, Coresh J, Reijneveld SA, Bültmann U. Socioeconomic measures and CKD in the United States and The Netherlands. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:1685–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McNeill LH, Kreuter MW, Subramanian S. Social environment and physical activity: a review of concepts and evidence. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(4):1011–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meyer OL, Castro-Schilo L, Aguilar-Gaxiola S. Determinants of mental health and self-rated health: a model of socioeconomic status, neighborhood safety, and physical activity. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(9):1734–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen DA, Marsh T, Williamson S, Derose KP, Martinez H, Setodji C, et al. Parks and physical activity: why are some parks used more than others? Prev Med. 2010;50:S9–S12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cohen DA, Han B, Derose KP, Williamson S, Marsh T, Rudick J, et al. Neighborhood poverty, park use, and park-based physical activity in a Southern California city. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75(12):2317–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen DA, Han B, Nagel CJ, Harnik P, McKenzie TL, Evenson KR, et al. The first national study of neighborhood parks: implications for physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(4):419–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Echeverria SE, Kang AL, Isasi CR, Johnson-Dias J, Pacquiao D. A community survey on neighborhood violence, park use, and physical activity among urban youth. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11(1):186–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Han B, Cohen DA, Derose KP, Li J, Williamson S. Violent crime and park use in low-income urban neighborhoods. Am J Prev Med. 2018;54:352–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford ES, Merritt RK, Heath GW, Powell KE, Washburn RA, Kriska A, et al. Physical activity behaviors in lower and higher socioeconomic status populations. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133(12):1246–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jin-Hyung L, Scott D, Floyd MF. Structural inequalities in outdoor recreation participation: a multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. J Leis Res. 2001;33(4):427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marshall SJ, Jones DA, Ainsworth BE, Reis JP, Levy SS, Macera CA. Race/ethnicity, social class, and leisure-time physical inactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(1):44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McKenzie TL, Cohen DA, Sehgal A, Williamson S, Golinelli D. System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC): reliability and feasibility measures. J Phys Act Health. 2006;3(s1):S208–S22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Mâsse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):181–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Foster S, Giles-Corti B. The built environment, neighborhood crime and constrained physical activity: an exploration of inconsistent findings. Prev Med. 2008;47(3):241–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bedimo-Rung AL, Mowen AJ, Cohen DA. The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(2):159–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sujeong Park
    • 1
  • Bing Han
    • 2
  • Deborah A. Cohen
    • 2
  • Kathryn P. Derose
    • 2
  1. 1.Pardee RAND Graduate SchoolSanta MonicaUSA
  2. 2.RAND CorporationSanta MonicaUSA

Personalised recommendations