Journal of Urban Health

, Volume 95, Issue 2, pp 159–170 | Cite as

Efficacy of a Small-Group Intervention for Post-Incarcerated Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW)

  • Nina T. Harawa
  • Heather Guentzel-Frank
  • William Jason McCuller
  • John K. Williams
  • Gregorio Millet
  • Lisa Belcher
  • Heather A. Joseph
  • Ricky N. Bluthenthal


We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a six-session behavioral intervention designed to reduce frequency of condomless sex and numbers of sex partners among recently incarcerated, bisexual Black men. One hundred participants were assigned to the small-group intervention, Men in Life Environments (MILE), and 112 were assigned to the control condition. Among those assigned to MILE, 69% attended at least one session, 88% of whom attended all sessions. At 3-months’ follow-up, large reductions in risk behaviors were reported by both groups. Means for episodes of condomless sex in the previous 3 months declined from 27.7 to 8.0 for the intervention and 25.6 to 6.7 for the control group. Reductions were not greater for the intervention than those of the control group. Regression to the mean, respondent burden, and implementation issues, such as moving from office-based to field-based survey administration at follow-up, may have contributed to the large declines reported by both groups.


Behavioral intervention HIV risk behavior Bisexual Black/African American men Incarceration 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Study procedures were approved by the institutional review boards at University of Southern California and the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science. Interested and eligible individuals completed the consent process and baseline interviews at the study offices located in CHJ. They provided written informed consent using an IRB-approved consent form that outlined study procedures; potential risks, benefits, and compensation; protection related to our Certificate to Confidentiality; and limits to confidentiality. Those initially contacted in jail provided verbal consent for collection of their locator information in jails for potential study enrollment post-release, using IRB approved forms and processes for this purpose.


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Copyright information

© The New York Academy of Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nina T. Harawa
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Heather Guentzel-Frank
    • 4
  • William Jason McCuller
    • 1
  • John K. Williams
    • 5
  • Gregorio Millet
    • 7
  • Lisa Belcher
    • 5
    • 6
  • Heather A. Joseph
    • 5
    • 6
  • Ricky N. Bluthenthal
    • 8
  1. 1.College of MedicineCharles R. Drew University of Medicine and ScienceLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of California Los Angeles (UCLA)Los AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Los AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Community Health SciencesUCLA Fielding School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUCLALos AngelesUSA
  6. 6.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB PreventionAtlantaUSA
  7. 7.amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS ResearchNew YorkUSA
  8. 8.Institute for Prevention Research, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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