Therapy of Advanced Prostate Cancer: Targeting the Androgen Receptor Axis in Earlier Lines of Treatment
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With the decrease in PSA screening based on the 2011 United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines and the potential approval of highly sensitive imaging techniques over the next few years, we are likely to see an increasing trend of metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis. Traditional therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer (nmPC) has consisted of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) followed by other hormonal therapy maneuvers, such as anti-androgen withdrawal, herbal preparations, low dose steroids, or ketoconazole. Androgen receptor-axis-targeted therapies (ARAT) were previously only approved for patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This has recently changed after reporting of results from the SPARTAN and PROSPER trials, which were conducted in nonmetastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) patients. These studies demonstrated improved metastasis-free survival with apalutamide and enzalutamide, each compared to placebo in a double blind randomized setting. In 2017, the LATITUDE and STAMPEDE studies demonstrated marked survival benefit with early abiraterone and prednisone in patients with metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) in addition to ADT. Other second-generation AR antagonists are currently in phase 3 trials in mHSPC and nmCRPC. This article summarizes the key clinical trials that led to FDA approval of ARAT in the mHSPC and nmCRPC settings and highlights potential limitations, future directions, and treatment-algorithms when selecting patients for early therapy in mHSPC and NMPC.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
No external funding was used in the preparation of this manuscript.
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Ulka Vaishampayan declares research support and consulting for Astellas Inc. and honoraria from Pfizer Inc. and Bayer Inc. Dr. Harsh Shah declares that he has no conflicts of interest that might be relevant to the contents of this manuscript.
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