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Simulation study of transcatheter heart valve implantation in patients with stenotic bicuspid aortic valve

Abstract

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) anatomy has routinely been considered an exclusion in the setting of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of the large dimension of the aortic annulus having a more calcified, bulky, and irregular shape. The study aims to develop a patient-specific computational framework to virtually simulate TAVI in stenotic BAV patients using the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve (S3) and its improved version SAPIEN 3 Ultra and quantify stent frame deformity as well as the severity of paravalvular leakage (PVL). Specifically, the aortic root anatomy of n.9 BAV patients who underwent TAVI was reconstructed from pre-operative CT imaging. Crimping and deployment of S3 frame were performed and then followed by fluid-solid interaction analysis to simulate valve leaflet dynamics throughout the entire cardiac cycle. Modeling revealed that the S3 stent frame expanded well on BAV anatomy with an elliptical shape at the aortic annulus. Comparison of predicted S3 deformity as assessed by eccentricity and expansion indices demonstrated a good agreement with the measurement obtained from CT imaging. Blood particle flow analysis demonstrated a backward blood jet during diastole, whereas the predicted PVL flows corresponded well with those determined by transesophageal echocardiography. This study represents a further step towards the use of personalized simulations to virtually plan TAVI, aiming at improving not only the efficacy of the implantation but also the exploration of “off-label” applications as the TAVI in the setting of BAV patients.

Computational frameworks of TAVI in patients with stenotic bicuspid aortic valve

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Funding

This work was supported by a “Ricerca Finalizzata” grant from the Italian Ministry of Health (GR-2011-02348129) to Salvatore Pasta.

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Correspondence to Salvatore Pasta.

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Pasta, S., Cannata, S., Gentile, G. et al. Simulation study of transcatheter heart valve implantation in patients with stenotic bicuspid aortic valve. Med Biol Eng Comput (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-020-02138-4

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Keywords

  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation
  • Bicuspid aortic valve
  • Finite-element analysis
  • Fluid-solid interaction