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Regularized logistic regression for obstructive sleep apnea screening during wakefulness using daytime tracheal breathing sounds and anthropometric information

  • Farahnaz Hajipour
  • Mohammad Jafari Jozani
  • Ahmed Elwali
  • Zahra MoussaviEmail author
Original Article
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent health problem. Developing a technology for quick OSA screening is momentous. In this study, we used regularized logistic regression to predict the OSA severity level of 199 individuals (116 males) with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 (moderate/severe OSA) and AHI < 5 (non-OSA) using their tracheal breathing sounds (TBS) recorded during daytime, while they were awake. The participants were guided to breathe through their nose, and then through their mouth at their deep breathing rate. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) feature selection approach was used to select the discriminative features from the power spectra of the TBS and the anthropometric information. Using a five-fold cross-validation procedure, five different training sets and their corresponding blind-testing sets were formed. The average blind-testing classification accuracy over the five different folds was found to be 79.3% ± 6.1 with the sensitivity (specificity) of 82.2% ± 7.2% (75.8% ± 9.9%). The accuracy for the entire dataset was found to be 81.1% with sensitivity (specificity) of 84.4% (77.0%). The feature selection and classification procedures were intelligible and fast. The selected features were physiologically meaningful. Overall, the results show that TBS analysis can be used as a quick and reliable prediction of the presence and severity of OSA during wakefulness without a sleep study.

Graphical abstract

Wakefulness screening of obstructive sleep apnea using tracheal breathing sounds and anthropometric information by means of regularized logistic regression with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach for feature selection and classification.

Keywords

Obstructive sleep apnea Tracheal breathing sounds Wakefulness screening Regularized logistic regression LASSO feature selection 

Notes

Glossary

AHI

Apnea/hypopnea index

AUC

Area under the curve

CI

Confidence interval

FFT

Fast Fourier transform

LASSO

Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator

LogVar

Logarithm of the sound’s variance

MANOVA

Multivariate analysis of variance

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

PSD

Power spectrum density

PSG

Polysomnography

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

SaO2

Oxygen saturation level of blood

SVM

Support vector machine

TBS

Tracheal breathing sounds

UA

Upper airway

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Copyright information

© International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering ProgramUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Dept of StatisticsUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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