Feasibility study of portable microwave microstrip open-loop resonator for non-invasive blood glucose level sensing: proof of concept
- 215 Downloads
Self-management of blood glucose level is part and parcel of diabetes treatment, which involves invasive, painful, and uncomfortable methods. A proper non-invasive blood glucose monitor (NIBGM) is therefore desirable to deal better with it. Microwave resonators can potentially be used for such a purpose. Following the positive results from an in vitro previous work, a portable device based upon a microwave resonator was developed and assessed in a multicenter proof of concept. Its electrical response was analyzed when an individual’s tongue was placed onto it. The study was performed with 352 individuals during their oral glucose tolerance tests, having four measurements per individual. The findings revealed that the accuracy must be improved before the diabetes community can make real use of the device. However, the relationship between the measuring parameter and the individual’s blood glucose level is coherent with that from previous works, although with higher data dispersion. This is reflected in correlation coefficients between glycemia and the measuring magnitude consistently negative, although small, for the different datasets analyzed. Further research is proposed, focused on system improvements, individual calibration, and multitechnology approach. The study of the influence of other blood components different to glucose is also advised.
KeywordsBlood glucose Microwaves Portable device Proof of concept Quality factor
The authors would like to sincerely thank the nursing work carried out by María de los Ángeles Vicedo García and Ana Laura Morote Castellanos throughout the measurements and data acquisition process.
Carlos G. Juan’s work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport through the Research and Doctorate Supporting Program FPU under Grant FPU14/00401. This work was partially funded by the Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of Valencia Region (FISABIO) through Project UGP-15-202, and by Spanish Research State Agency and European Regional Development Fund through “Craneeal” Project (DPI2106-80391-C3-2-R).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Ethics Committee of Hospital General Universitario de Alicante and Ethics Committee of Hospital Universitatio San Juan de Alicante, as well as with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.World Health Organization (2016) Global report on diabetes. Switzerland, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 5.Gill M, Zhu C, Shah M, Chhabra H (2018) Health care costs, hospital admissions, and glycemic control using a standalone, real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system in commercially insured patients with type 1 diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol 12(4):800–807. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932296818777265 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 6.Zarkogianni K, Mitsis K, Litsa E, Arredondo M-T, Fico G, Fioravanti A, Nikita KS (2015) Comparative assessment of glucose prediction models for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus applying sensors for glucose and physical activity monitoring. Med Biol Eng Comput 53(12):1333–1343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-015-1320-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Abraham MB, Nicholas JA, Smith GJ, Fairchild JM, King BR, Ambler GR, Cameron FJ, Davis EA, Jones TW (2018) Reduction in hypoglycemia with the predictive low-glucose management system: a long-term randomized controlled trial in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 41:303–310. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-1604 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Ghazaryan A, Ovsepian SV, Ntziachristos V (2018) Extended near-infrared optoacoustic spectrometry for sensing physiological concentrations of glucose. Front Endocrinol 9(112). https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00112
- 26.Vahlsing T, Delbeck S, Leonhardt S, Michael Heise H (2018) Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose using color-coded photoplethysmographic images of the illuminated fingertip within the visible and near-infrared range: opportunities and questions. J Diabetes Sci Technol 12(6):1169–1177. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932296818798347 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.Greene J, Abdullah B, Cullen J, Korostynska O, Louis J, Mason A (2019) Non-invasive monitoring of glycogen in real-time using an electromagnetic sensor. In: Mukhopadhyay S, Jayasundera K, Postolache O (eds) Modern sensing technologies. smart sensors, measurement and instrumentation, vol 29, Springer, pp. 1–15. ISBN: 978-3-319-99539-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99540-3_1 Google Scholar
- 31.Potelon B, Quendo C, Carré J-L, Chevalier A, Person C, Queffelec P (2014) Electromagnetic signature of glucose in aqueous solutions and human blood. In Proc MEMSWAVE Conf 2014, La Rochelle, France, pp. 4–7Google Scholar
- 35.Costanzo S, Cioffi V, Raffo A (2018) Complex permittivity effect on the performances of non-invasive microwave blood glucose sensing: enhanced model and preliminary results. In Proc WorldCIST'18 2018: Trends and advances in information systems and technologies, Naples, Italy, pp 1505–1511. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77712-2_146,Google Scholar
- 38.Juan CG, Bronchalo E, Torregrosa G, Garcia A, Sabater-Navarro JM (2015) Microwave microstrip resonator for developing a non-invasive glucose sensor. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg (CARS) 10(1):172–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11548-015-1213-2
- 39.Jean BR, Green EC, McClung MJ (2008) A microwave frequency sensor for non-invasive blood-glucose measurement. In Proc IEEE Sensors Appl Symp (SAS) 2008, Atlanta, GA, USA https://doi.org/10.1109/SAS.2008.4472932
- 42.Raicu V, Feldman Y (2015) Dielectric relaxation in biological systems: physical principles, methods and applications. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN: 9780199686513, Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686513.001.0001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.nBio Research Group (2019) File with_without_plastic.zip. In: Glucolate nBio. Available via http://nbio.umh.es/glucolate/. Accessed 11 July 2019
- 44.Pozar D (1998) Microwave filters. In Pozar D (ed.) Microwave engineering, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 422–498. ISBN: 0–471–17096-8Google Scholar
- 45.García H, Juan CG, Ávila-Navarro E, Bronchalo E, Sabater-Navarro JM (2019) Portable device based on microwave resonator for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. In 2019 41st Annual Int Conf of the IEEE Eng Med Biol Society (EMBC), Berlin, GermayGoogle Scholar
- 47.Kajfez D (2011) Q factor measurements using Matlab. Norwood: Artech House. ISBN: 9781608071616Google Scholar
- 48.nBio Research Group (2019) File all_data.zip. In: Glucolate nBio. Available via http://nbio.umh.es/glucolate/. Accessed 11 July 2019
- 49.Turgul V, Kale I (2016) A novel pressure sensing circuit for non-invasive RF/microwave blood glucose sensors. In 16th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMS.2016.7803818