Fractal dimension based carotid plaque characterization from three-dimensional ultrasound images
- 138 Downloads
Irregularity of the plaque surface associated with previous plaque rupture plays an important role in the risk estimation of stroke caused by carotid atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop and validate novel vulnerability biomarkers from three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) images by analyzing the surface morphological characteristics of carotid plaque using fractal geometry features. In the experiments, a total of 38 3DUS plaque images were obtained from two groups of patients treated with 80 mg of atorvastatin or placebo daily for 3 months respectively. Two types of 3D fractal dimensions (FDs) were used to describe the smoothness of plaque surface morphology and the roughness from intensity of 3DUS images. Student’s t test showed that the two fractal features were effective for detecting the statin-related changes in carotid atherosclerosis with p < 0.00023 and p < 0.0113 respectively. It was concluded that the 3D FD measurements were effective for analyzing carotid plaque characteristics and especially effective for evaluating the impact of atorvastatin treatment.
KeywordsFractal dimension Carotid plaque characterization Three-dimensional ultrasound Vulnerable plaque
This work was financially supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 81571754) and partly supported by the Special Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20130142130006) and the Innovation Research Foundation of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (No. 2013ZZGH018).
Compliance with ethical standards
Patients provided written informed consent to a study protocol approved by the University of Western Ontario Standing Board of Human Research Ethics.
- 6.Baber U, Mehran R, Sartori S, Schoos MM, Sillesen H, Muntendam P, Garcia MJ, Gregson J, Pocock S, Falk E, Fuster V (2015) Prevalence, impact, and predictive value of detecting subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic adults: the BioImage study. J Am Coll Cardiol 65:1065–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Backes AR, Eler DM, Minghim R, Bruno OM (2010) Characterizing 3D shapes using fractal dimension. In: Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican congress conference on Progress in pattern recognition, image analysis, computer vision, and applications, BrazilGoogle Scholar
- 8.Cardiovascular diseases (2012) World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/
- 10.Chiu B, Egger M, Parraga G, Fenster A, Spence JD (2006) Quantification of carotid vessel atherosclerosis. In: The processing of the International Society for Optical EngineeringGoogle Scholar
- 11.Chiu B, Egger M, Spence JD, Parraga G, Fenster A (2006) Quantification of progression and regression of carotid vessel atherosclerosis using 3D ultrasound images. In: the processing of the 28th International Conference on the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology SocietyGoogle Scholar
- 20.G*Power: Statistical power analyses for Windows and Mac. http://www.gpower.hhu.de/
- 24.Johnsen SH, Mathiesen EB, Joakimsen O, Stensland E, Wilsgaard T, Lochen M-L, Njolstad I, Arnesen E (2007) Carotid atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor of myocardial infarction in women than in men: a 6-year follow-up study of 6226 persons: the Tromso Study. Stroke 38:2873–2880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Landry A, Fenster A (2002) Theoretical and experimental quantification of carotid plaque volume measurements made by three-dimensional ultrasound using test phantoms. Med Phys 29Google Scholar
- 33.Mandelbrot B (1982) The fractal geometry of nature. W. H. Freeman and Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- 41.Tsakiris AG, Papanicolaou T (2008) A fractal approach for characterizing microroughness in gravel streams. Arch Hydro Eng Environ Mech 55:29–43Google Scholar
- 48.Yongkang L, Mingyue D (2016) Atorvastatin effect evaluation based on feature combination of three dimension ultrasound images. In: SPIE Medical Imaging, San Diego, California, United StatesGoogle Scholar