In this study, issues concerning the design of scales for measuring teacher sense of efficacy (TSE) are first identified with particular attention to the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Psychometric issues concerning analysis and reporting of TSE data are subsequently identified. Recommendations are offered about all identified issues, and these recommendations are taken into account when obtaining and analyzing TSE data from Chinese mainland preservice and inservice teachers. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a single factor for both samples as well as for four subgroups within the inservice teacher sample. Results also provided insights about scale design as well as the TSES being limited for capturing the breadth of TSE. Suggestions are made for improvements in the assessment of TSE.
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Sylvia McAra and Michael Moxham suggested improvements to earlier drafts of this manuscript. Colleagues in Australia and China, including Qing Xu, Yichi Zhang, and Tengfei Gong, provided assistance with translating and back translating the surveys, and other colleagues helped with accessing participants.
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Ma, K., Trevethan, R. & Lu, S. Measuring Teacher Sense of Efficacy: Insights and Recommendations Concerning Scale Design and Data Analysis from Research with Preservice and Inservice Teachers in China. Front Educ China 14, 612–686 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11516-019-0029-1
- teacher sense of efficacy (TSE)
- teacher self-efficacy
- Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)
- scale design
- response rate
- factor analysis